Friday Fellow: Bullet ant

by Piter Kehoma Boll

The rainforests of Central and South America host this small but scary creature, the bullet ant Paraponera clavata. Feared by people living where it is found, the bullet ant is one of the most venomous ants in the world. The name “bullet ant” is a reference to the pain caused by being shot, which is said to be the closest analogy to the pain of a bullet ant sting. In Portuguese it is known as tocandira, a word derived from Tupi, meaning “hurting very much”. In Spanish it is sometimes called “hormiga 24 horas” because the pain is said to last a whole day.

A bullet ant worker. Photo by Geoff Gallice.*

A bullet ant worker. Photo by Geoff Gallice.*

The bullet ant is found in the Neotropical Ecozone from Honduras and Nicaragua to Paraguay. Their nests are built at the base of the trees, under the ground, and workers look for food mostly on the tree trunk and canopy directly above the nest and on nearby trees, sometimes exploring the forest floor. They are predatory ants, feeding mainly on arthropods, but also consuming nectar.

Considered a primitive ant, the bullet ant lacks polymorphism among the worker caste, i.e., all workers have the same general appearance. The queen is also not very different from the workers.

The horrible sting inflicted by these ants is used as a form of defence.  It contains a neurotoxin known as poneratoxin that causes paralysis by blocking synaptic transmission. It is effective against at least vertebrates and arthropods. Nevertheless, the Sateré-Mawé people from Brazil use the ants’ stings in a sadic ritual to become a “warrior”. For this purpose, a poor boy has to put his hand inside a glove filled with bullet ants and let it there for 10 minutes. As a result the boy’s arm becomes paralyzed for days and he may shake incontrollably due to the venom’s effect. And he has to repeat this ritual 20 times!

I can only think that humans… oh, never mind.

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References:

Piek, T.; Duval, A.; Hue, B.; Karst, H.; Lapied, B.; Mantel, P.; Nakajima, T.; Pelhate, M.; Schmidt, J. O. 1991. Poneratoxin, a novel peptide neurotoxin from the venom of the ant, Paraponera clavata. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Comparative Pharmacology, 99 (3): 487–495.

Wikipedia. Paraponera clavata. Availabe at: < https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paraponera_clavata >. Access on May 25, 2016.

Young, A. M.; Herrmann, H. R. 1980. Notes on foraging of the Giant Tropical Ant Paraponera clavata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 53 (1): 35–55.

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Male dragonflies are not as violent as thought

ResearchBlogging.orgby Piter Kehoma Boll

Males and females are defined by their gametes. Males have tiny, usually mobile gametes, while females have very large gametes that usually do not move. This means that females produce less gametes, but put a lot of resources in each one, i.e., female gametes are expensive. On the other hand, male gametes are very cheap, small and produced in large quantities. As a result of these differences, males and females have different interests during sex.

As females produce more expensive and less numerous gametes, they tend to be very selective on who they let fertilize them. But males benefit from fertilizing every female gamete they find in their way. In other words, females want quality and males want quantity. This difference in interests is called sexual conflict and is a strong evolutionary force.

One evolutionary adaptation that has been seen as resulting from sexual conflict is the mating system in odonates (dragonflies and damselfies). During sex, the male dragonfly grasps the female neck using a grapsing apparatus at the end of its abdomen. The female is then induced to connect the tip of its abdomen to the second and third segments of the male’s abdomen, where sperm is stored. The couple than flies together in a heart-like formation.

Two dragonflies of the species Rhionaescna multicolor copulation. The male is the blue one, which is grasping the female's neck and making her touch the tip of her abdomen to his second and third abdominal segments, where sperm is stored. Photo by Eugene Zelenko.*

Two dragonflies of the species Rhionaeschna multicolor copulating. The male is the blue one, which is grasping the female’s neck and making her touch the tip of her abdomen to his second and third abdominal segments, where sperm is stored. Photo by Eugene Zelenko.

It was thought that the male grasping apparatus forced an unwilling female to copulate with him, suggesting that the organ evolved through sexual conflict. The fact that males usually grab females way before they accept to mate and continue to hold them for a long time after the mating has finished (preventing her from mating with other males) seem to be good evidence for this theory. If this is true, than the female would try to get rid of the male, selecting stronger and bigger grasping apparatuses in males, as those would be more efficient in holding the female and, as a result, would lead to more descendants.

A study published last year tested this hypothesis. Córdoba-Aguilar et al. (2015) evaluated the allometry (the proportional size of a structure with respect to body size) of the male grasping apparatus in several dragonfly species. If males forced females to copulate, a hyperallometric relationship should be expected.

What does that mean? Well, let’s try to explain it the simplest way. When you plot data on the size of a structure according to the size of the body as a whole on a graph, using values that lead to a linear relationship, you may have different results. The structure may increase in size in the same way as the body, in a 1:1 relationship. In this case, the line in the graph is said to have a slope equal to 1 and there is an isometric relationship of the structure to the body. If the slope is greater than one, this means that the structure grows faster than the body, having a hyperallometric relationship. If the slope is smaller than one (but greater than zero), the relationship is hypoallometric and the structure grows slower than the body.

allometry

The measurements of the grasping apparatus in dragonflies in general showed an isometric relationship. So, according to this approach, the structure did not evolve as a “weapon” to subdue females. But which other explanations may exist then? It could be used as a courtship tool, a way for the male to convince the female to mate with him. It could also be a way to avoid interspecific mating, as the grasping apparatus has a strong specificity in shape to the female neck of the same species. A male dragonfly cannnot grasp a female of other species because the grasping apparatus simply does not fit in the female’s neck.

Both alternative hypotheses for the evolution of the apparatus are possible, but further studies are needed to test them.

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References:

Chapman, T., Arnqvist, G., Bangham, J., & Rowe, L. (2003). Sexual conflict Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 18 (1), 41-47 DOI: 10.1016/S0169-5347(02)00004-6

Córdoba-Aguilar, A., Vrech, D., Rivas, M., Nava-Bolaños, A., González-Tokman, D., & González-Soriano, E. (2014). Allometry of Male Grasping Apparatus in Odonates Does Not Suggest Physical Coercion of Females Journal of Insect Behavior, 28 (1), 15-25 DOI: 10.1007/s10905-014-9477-x

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New species: May 3rd week

by Piter Kehoma Boll

Here is a list of species described from May 15 to May 21. It certainly does not include all described species. Most information comes from the journals Mycokeys, Phytokeys, Zookeys, Phytotaxa, Zootaxa and International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology.

Chilicola charizard is a bee described this week whose name is a reference to one of the most famous Pokémon.

Chilicola charizard is a bee described this week whose name is a reference to one of the most famous Pokémon.

SARs

Plants

Fungi

Mollusks

Arachnids

Myriapods

Crustaceans

Insects

Ray-finned fishes

Mammals

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Friday Fellow: Giraffe weevil

by Piter Kehoma Boll

Today we are going back to Madagascar, that weird African island that fights against Australia for the title of the most bizarre place on Earth. We already presented one of its inhabitants, the Grandidider’s Baobab, and today I’ll show you a tiny and unusual beetle, the giraffe weevil, Trachelophorus giraffa.

A male giraffe weevil. Photo by Frank Vassen*

A male giraffe weevil. Photo by Frank Vassen*

The reason of the name of this adorable creature is obvious at first sight. The unusual long neck most likely evolved through sexual selection, as it is three times longer in males than in females. Despite looking as something very inconvenient, the giraffe weevil’s neck is actually useful in helping it to roll leaves in order to build a nest.

Measuring only about 2.5 cm in length, it is a considerably popular animal in lists of weird creatures, but unfortunately little is known about its life history and, just as virtually all life forms in the island, is threatened by habitat loss.

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References:

EOL. Giraffe Beetle. Available at: < http://eol.org/pages/621154/overview >. Access on May 16, 2016.

Wills, C. (2010) The Darwinian Tourist: Viewing the World Through Evolutionary Eyes. Oxford University Press.

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New Species: May 2nd week

by Piter Kehoma Boll

Here is a list of species described from May 8 to May 14. It certainly does not include all described species. Most information comes from the journals Mycokeys, Phytokeys, Zookeys, Phytotaxa, Zootaxa and International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology.

Panorpa reflexa (left) and Panorpa parellala (right), two scorpionflies described this week.

Panorpa reflexa (left) and Panorpa parallela (right), two scorpionflies described this week.

SARs

Plants

Amoebozoans

Fungi

Cnidarians

Molluscs

Roundworms

  • 5 new species: Parodontophora aequiramus sp. nov., Parodontophora irregularis sp. nov., Parodontophora huoshanensis sp. nov., Parodontophora microseta sp. nov., Parodontophora paramicroseta sp. nov.

Arachnids

Crustaceans

Hexapods

Reptiles

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Friday Fellow: Sally Lightfoot

by Piter Kehoma Boll

Running delicately on the tip of its feet like a ballerina, our first crustacean fellow comes from the Pacific coast of the Americas and is commonly called “sally lightfoot”. Scientifically it is known as Grapsus grapsus, a name that sounds like something gnawing, or grasping, as if it was intended to represent its large claws and small mouth working together to scratch algae from the rocky shores it inhabits.

A sally lightfoot in the Galapagos Islands. Photo by A. Davey.*

A sally lightfoot in the Galapagos Islands. Photo by A. Davey.* (flickr.com/photos/adavey/)

The sally lightfoot is found on the Pacific coasts of the Americas from Mexico to northern Chile, in the Galapagos Islands and in several Islands in the western Atlantic, such as the Caribbean Islands and the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago in Brazil. Specimens from the Pacific usually grow up to 80 mm or more in length, while those in the Saint Paul Island are smaller, reaching about 70 mm. Males are slightly larger than females.

As most crabs, the sally lightfoot is a detritivore, feeding on dead animals and other detrites, but seems to be primarily a herbivore, feeding on algae that it scrapes (graps graps graps…) off rocks. It can also, eventually, capture small animals, and there are reports of specimens having a relationship as cleaners with marine iguanas in the Galapagos Islands, scraping ticks (graps graps graps…) of the iguanas’ skin.

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References:

EOL, Encyclopedia of Life. Sally Lightfoot Crab. Available at: < http://eol.org/pages/1021865/ >. Access on May 6, 2016.

Freire, A. S.; Pinheiro, M. A. A.; Karam-Silva, H.; Teschima, M. M. 2011. Biology of Grapsus grapsus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Brachyura, Grapsidae) in the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Helgoland Marine Research, 65 (3): 263–273.

Wikipedia. Grapsus grapsus. Available at: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grapsus_grapsus&gt;. Access on May 6, 2016.

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The history of Systematics: Plants in Systema Naturae, 1758 (Part 2)

by Piter Kehoma Boll

This posts continues to present the classification of plants according to Linnaeus that started in part 1.

5. Pentandria (“five males”)

“Five husbands in each marriage”, i.e., five stamens in a hermaphrodite flower.

5.1 Pentandria monogynia (“five males and one female”), five stamens and one pistil in a hermaphrodite flower: Heliotropium (heliotropes), Myosotis (forget-me-nots), Lithospermum (gromwells),  Anchusa (buglosses), Cynoglossum (houndstongues), Pulmonaria (lungworts), Symphytum (comfreys), Cerinthe (honeyworts), Borago (borages), Asperugo (madwort), Lycopsis (monksworts), Echium (viper’s bugloss), Varronia (varronia), Tournefortia (soldier’s bushes), Chiococca (cahincas), Diapensia (pincushions), Aretia (Alpine rock-jasmine), Androsace (rock-jasmines), Primula (primroses), Cortusa (Alpine bells), Soldanella (snowbells), Dodecatheon (shooting stars), Cyclamen (cyclamens), Menyanthes (bogbeans), Hottonia (water violets), Hydrophyllum (waterleaves), Lysimachia (loosestrifes), Anagallis (pimpernels), Theophrasta (theophrastas), Patagonula (patagonulas), Spigelia (pinkroots), Ophiorrhiza (snakeroots), Randia (indigoberries), Azalea (azaleas), Plumbago (leadworts), Phlox (phloxes), Convolvulus (bindweeds), Ipomoea (morning glories), Polemonium (Jacob’s ladders), Campanula (bellflowers), Roella (roellas), Phyteuma (rampions), Trachelium (throatworts), Samolus (brookweeds), Rondeletia (Panama roses), Portlandia (Jamaican bells), Bellonia (bellonias), Cinchona (quinines), Psychotria (wild coffees), Coffea (coffee), Lonicera (honeysuckles), Triosteum (horse-gentians), Erithalis (blacktorches), Morinda (morindas), Conocarpus (button trees), Mussaenda (mussaendas), Genipa (genipapo), Mirabilis (four o’clocks), Coris (bugflowers), Verbascum (mulleins), Datura (trumpets), Hyoscyamus (henbanes), Nicotiana (tobacco plants), Atropa (nightshades and mandrakes), Physalis (groundcherries), Solanum (nightshades, tomatoes, potato, aubergine), Capsicum (bell peppers, chili peppers), Strychnos (strychnine trees), Chironia (chironias), Cordia (manjacks), Brunfelsia (brunfelsias), Ehretia (ehretias), Cestrum (cestrums), Lycium (boxthorns), Chrysophyllum (goldleaves), Sideroxylon (bully trees), Rhamnus (buckthorns), Phylica (cape myrtles), Ceanothus (wild lilacs), Myrsine (African boxwood), Celastrus (staff vines), Euonymus (spindles), Hartogia (Cape buchu), Byttneria (byttnerias), Diosma (diosmas), Brunia (brunias), Itea (sweetspires), Galax (wandplant), Cedrela (new world cedars), Mangifera (magoes), Cupania (cupanias), Ribes (gooseberries and currants), Gronovia (gronovia), Hedera (ivies), Vitis (grape vines), Lagoecia (lagoecias), Sauvagesia (sauvagesias), Claytonia (miner’s lettuces), Achyranthes (chaff-flowers), Celosia (cockscombs), Illecebrum (coral necklace), Glaux (sea milkweed), Thesium (thesiums), Rauvolfia (devil-pepper), Cerbera (mango mangroves), Vinca (periwinkles), Nerium (oleanders), Plumeria (plumerias), Cameraria (camerarias), Tabernaemontana (milkwoods), Ceropegia (strings of hearts).

More than a hundred genera made up the order Pentandria Monogynia. Among the species there were (from left to right, top to bottom): European heliotrope (Heliotropium europaeum), true forget-me-not (Myosotis scorpioides), common gromwell (Lithospermum officinale), common bugloss (Anchusa officinalis), common houndstongue (Cynoglossum officinale), common lungwort (Pulmonaria officinalis), common comfrey (Symphytum officinale), common honeywort (Cerinthe major), common borage (Borago officinalis), madwort (Asperugo procumbens), red monkswort (Lycopsis vesicaria, now Nonea vesicaria), Italian viper’s bugloss (Echium italicum), cahinca (Chiococca alba), pincushion (Diapensia lapponica), northern rock-jasmine (Androsace septentrionalis), cowslip (Primula veris), Alpine bells (Cortusa matthioli or Primula matthioli), Alpine snowbell (Soldanella alpina), common shooting star (Dodecatheon meadia), European cyclamen (Cyclamen purpurascens), bogbean (Menyanthes trifoliata), water violet (Hottonia palustris), Virginia waterleaf (Hydrophyllum virginianum), yellow loosestrife (Lysimachia vulgaris), red pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis), American theophrasta (Theophrasta americana), white indigoberry (Randia aculeata), Japanese azalea (Azalea indica, now Rhododendron indicum), Ceylon leadwort (Plumbago zeylanica), garden phlox (Phlox paniculata), field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), cypress vine (Ipomoea quamoclit), common Jacob’s ladder (Polemonium caeruleum), giant bellflower (Campanula latifolia), round-headed rampion (Phyteuma orbiculare), blue throatwort (Trachelium caeruleum), seaside brookweed (Samolus valerandi), common Jamaican bell (Portlandia grandiflora), coffee (Coffea arabica), Italian honeysuckle (Lonicera caprifolium), common blacktorch (Erithalis fruticosa), great morinda (Morinda citrifolia), common button tree (Conocarpus erectus), wild mussaenda (Mussaenda frondosa), genipapo (Genipa americana), common four o’clock (Mirabilis jalapa), common mullein (Verbascum thapsus), common devil’s trumpet (Datura metel), black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger), common tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), common groundcherry (Physalis viscosa), potato (Solanum tuberosum), bell pepper (Capsicum annuum), nux vomica (Strynchos nux-vomica), Assyrian plum (Cordia myxa), American brunfelsia (Brunfelsia americana), night-blooming cestrum (Cestrum nocturnum), goji (Lycium barbarum), satinleaf (Chrysophyllum oliviforme), common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica), mountain sweet (Ceanothus americanus), African boxwood (Myrsine africana), American bittersweet (Celastrus scandens), European spindle (Euonymus europaeus), Virginia sweetspire (Itea virginica), Cuban cedar (Cedrela odorata), mango tree (Mangifera indica), red currant (Ribes rubrum), common ivy (Hedera helix), grape vine (Vitis vinifera), Siberian miner’s lettuce (Claytonia sibirica), common chaff-flower (Achyranthes aspera), common cockscomb (Celosia cristata), coral necklace (Illecebrum verticillatum), sea milkweed (Glaux maritima, now Lysimachia maritima), devil-pepper (Rauvolfia tetraphylla), sea mango (Cerbera manghas), lesser periwinkle (Vinca minor), oleander (Nerium oleander), red plumeria (Plumeria rubra), broad-leaf cameraria (Cameraria latifolia), string of hearts (Ceropegia candelabrum). Credits to Ivar Leidus (forget-me-not), Hans Hillewaert (gromwell, honeywort), Andreas Eichler (bugloss, comfrey), H. Zell (borage, cowslip, coffee, tobacco, potato, mountain sweet, spindle), Hermann Schachner (madwort), Scott Zona (cahinca, cameraria), Opioła Jerzy (Alpine bells), Agnes Monkelbaan (cyclamen), J.-H. Janßen (water violet), Frank Vicentz (loosestrife, cockscomb), Reuven Karp (pimpernel), Smithsonian Institute (theophrasta), Bob Peterson (indigoberry), J. M. Garg (leadwort), Anneli Salo (bindweed), Hafiz Issadeen (cypress vine), Erlend Bjørtvedt (bellflower), Javier Martin (throatwort), Raffi Kojian (Jamaican bell), Stefan Lefnaer (honeysuckle), Callie Oldfield (blacktorch), Ulf Mehlig (button tree), João Medeiros (genipapo), Zoya Akulova (groundcherry), Marco Schmidt (Assyrian plum), Andel Früh (brunfelsia), Cary Bass (cestrum), Danny S. (goji), Homer Edward Price (satinleaf), Krzysztof Ziarnek (buckthorn), Carla Antonini (mango), Stefan Kampf (currant), Isidre Blanc (ivy), Wouter Hagens (grape vine), Walter Siegmund (miner’s lettuce), Jeevan Jose (chaff-flower), Christian Fischer (sea milkweed), Christer Johansson (periwinkle), Ian W. Fieggen (oleander), Indian Biodiversity Portal (string of hearts), and Wikimedia users Aroche (heliotrope, brookweed), Fornax (houndstongue, rock jasmine), Belladona2 (lungwort), Cerencin (viper’s bugloss), Alinja (pincushion), Cptcv (snowbell), Uoaei1 (bogbean), Jnn (azalea), Epibase (phlox), Tigerente (rampion), The Photographer (morinda), Vinayaraj (mussaenda, nux vomica, devil pepper), Wildfeuer (four o’clock), 428mdk09 (mullein), Better days came (trumpet), Imanrtin6 (henbane), Aktron (nightshade), Carstor (bell pepper), JMK (African boxwood), SB_Johnny (sweetspire), Weddi (coral necklace), BotBln (sea mango), and KayEss (plumeria).

More than a hundred genera made up the order Pentandria Monogynia. Among the species there were (from left to right, top to bottom): European heliotrope (Heliotropium europaeum), true forget-me-not (Myosotis scorpioides), common gromwell (Lithospermum officinale), common bugloss (Anchusa officinalis), common houndstongue (Cynoglossum officinale), common lungwort (Pulmonaria officinalis), common comfrey (Symphytum officinale), common honeywort (Cerinthe major), common borage (Borago officinalis), madwort (Asperugo procumbens), red monkswort (Lycopsis vesicaria, now Nonea vesicaria), Italian viper’s bugloss (Echium italicum), cahinca (Chiococca alba), pincushion (Diapensia lapponica), northern rock-jasmine (Androsace septentrionalis), cowslip (Primula veris), Alpine bells (Cortusa matthioli or Primula matthioli), Alpine snowbell (Soldanella alpina), common shooting star (Dodecatheon meadia), European cyclamen (Cyclamen purpurascens), bogbean (Menyanthes trifoliata), water violet (Hottonia palustris), Virginia waterleaf (Hydrophyllum virginianum), yellow loosestrife (Lysimachia vulgaris), red pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis), American theophrasta (Theophrasta americana), white indigoberry (Randia aculeata), Japanese azalea (Azalea indica, now Rhododendron indicum), Ceylon leadwort (Plumbago zeylanica), garden phlox (Phlox paniculata), field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), cypress vine (Ipomoea quamoclit), common Jacob’s ladder (Polemonium caeruleum), giant bellflower (Campanula latifolia), round-headed rampion (Phyteuma orbiculare), blue throatwort (Trachelium caeruleum), seaside brookweed (Samolus valerandi), common Jamaican bell (Portlandia grandiflora), coffee (Coffea arabica), Italian honeysuckle (Lonicera caprifolium), common blacktorch (Erithalis fruticosa), great morinda (Morinda citrifolia), common button tree (Conocarpus erectus), wild mussaenda (Mussaenda frondosa), genipapo (Genipa americana), common four o’clock (Mirabilis jalapa), common mullein (Verbascum thapsus), common devil’s trumpet (Datura metel), black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger), common tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), common groundcherry (Physalis viscosa), potato (Solanum tuberosum), bell pepper (Capsicum annuum), nux vomica (Strynchos nux-vomica), Assyrian plum (Cordia myxa), American brunfelsia (Brunfelsia americana), night-blooming cestrum (Cestrum nocturnum), goji (Lycium barbarum), satinleaf (Chrysophyllum oliviforme), common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica), mountain sweet (Ceanothus americanus), African boxwood (Myrsine africana), American bittersweet (Celastrus scandens), European spindle (Euonymus europaeus), Virginia sweetspire (Itea virginica), Cuban cedar (Cedrela odorata), mango tree (Mangifera indica), red currant (Ribes rubrum), common ivy (Hedera helix), grape vine (Vitis vinifera), Siberian miner’s lettuce (Claytonia sibirica), common chaff-flower (Achyranthes aspera), common cockscomb (Celosia cristata), coral necklace (Illecebrum verticillatum), sea milkweed (Glaux maritima, now Lysimachia maritima), devil-pepper (Rauvolfia tetraphylla), sea mango (Cerbera manghas), lesser periwinkle (Vinca minor), oleander (Nerium oleander), red plumeria (Plumeria rubra), broad-leaf cameraria (Cameraria latifolia), string of hearts (Ceropegia candelabrum). Credits to Ivar Leidus (forget-me-not), Hans Hillewaert (gromwell, honeywort), Andreas Eichler (bugloss, comfrey), H. Zell (borage, cowslip, coffee, tobacco, potato, mountain sweet, spindle), Hermann Schachner (madwort), Scott Zona (cahinca, cameraria), Opioła Jerzy (Alpine bells), Agnes Monkelbaan (cyclamen), J.-H. Janßen (water violet), Frank Vicentz (loosestrife, cockscomb), Reuven Karp (pimpernel), Smithsonian Institute (theophrasta), Bob Peterson (indigoberry), J. M. Garg (leadwort), Anneli Salo (bindweed), Hafiz Issadeen (cypress vine), Erlend Bjørtvedt (bellflower), Javier Martin (throatwort), Raffi Kojian (Jamaican bell), Stefan Lefnaer (honeysuckle), Callie Oldfield (blacktorch), Ulf Mehlig (button tree), João Medeiros (genipapo), Zoya Akulova (groundcherry), Marco Schmidt (Assyrian plum), Andel Früh (brunfelsia), Cary Bass (cestrum), Danny S. (goji), Homer Edward Price (satinleaf), Krzysztof Ziarnek (buckthorn), Carla Antonini (mango), Stefan Kampf (currant), Isidre Blanc (ivy), Wouter Hagens (grape vine), Walter Siegmund (miner’s lettuce), Jeevan Jose (chaff-flower), Christian Fischer (sea milkweed), Christer Johansson (periwinkle), Ian W. Fieggen (oleander), Indian Biodiversity Portal (string of hearts), and Wikimedia users Aroche (heliotrope, brookweed), Fornax (houndstongue, rock jasmine), Belladona2 (lungwort), Cerencin (viper’s bugloss), Alinja (pincushion), Cptcv (snowbell), Uoaei1 (bogbean), Jnn (azalea), Epibase (phlox), Tigerente (rampion), The Photographer (morinda), Vinayaraj (mussaenda, nux vomica, devil pepper), Wildfeuer (four o’clock), 428mdk09 (mullein), Better days came (trumpet), Imanrtin6 (henbane), Aktron (nightshade), Carstor (bell pepper), JMK (African boxwood), SB_Johnny (sweetspire), Weddi (coral necklace), BotBln (sea mango), and KayEss (plumeria).

5.2 Pentandria digynia (“five males and two females”), five stamens and two pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Periploca (silkvines), Cynanchum (dog-strangling vines), Apocynum (dogbanes), Asclepias (milkweeds), Stapelia (carrion flowers), Herniaria (rupturewort), Chenopodium (goosefoots), Beta (beets), Salsola (saltworts), Anabasis (anabases), Cressa (alkaliweeds), Trianthema (pigweeds), Gomphrena (bachelor buttons), Bosea (yervamora), Ulmus (elms), Nama (fiddleleaves), Heuchera (alumroots), Swertia (felworts), Gentiana (gentians), Phyllis (phyllis), Eryngium (sea hollies), Hydrocotyle (water pennyworts), Sanicula (sanicles), Astrantia (masterworts), Bupleurum (hare’s ears), Echinophora (thorn-bearers), Tordylium (hartworts), Caucalis (bur-parsley), Artedia (artedia), Daucus (carrots), Ammi (false bishop’s weeds), Bunium (black cumin), Conium (hemlocks), Selinum (milk parsleys), Athamanta (athamantas), Peucedanum (hog’s fennels), Crithmum (sea fennels), Cachrys (cachrys), Hasselquistia (Egyptian hartwort), Ferula (giant fennels and asafoetidas), Laserpitium (sermountains), Heracleum (hogweeds), Ligusticum (lovages), Angelica (angelicas), Sium (water-parsnips), Sison (stone-parsnips), Bubon (mountain-parsnips), Cuminum (cumin), Oenanthe (water dropworts), Phellandrium (water dropworts and lovages), Cicuta (water hemlocks), Aethusa (fool’s parsley), Coriandrum (corianders), Sandix (cicelies and shepherd’s-needles), Chaerophyllum (chervils), Imperatoria (true masterwort), Seseli (moon carrots and fennels), Thapsia (deadly carrots), Pastinaca (parsnips), Smyrnium (alexanders), Anethum (dill), Carum (caraway), Pimpinella (anis), Apium (celery and parsley), Aegopodium (ground elders).

The order Pentandria Digynia included the following species (from left to right, top to bottom): common silkvine (Periploca graeca), acute dog-strangling vine (Cynanchum acutum), fly-trap dogbane (Apocynum androsaemifolium), white milkweed (Asclepias variegata), starfish flower (Stapelia hirsuta), smooth rupturewort (Herniaria glabra), white goosefoot (Chenopodium album), beet (Beta vulgaris), common saltwort (Salsola soda), common alkaliweed (Cressa cretica), black pigweed (Trianthema portulacastrum), bachelor button (Gomphrena globosa), American elm (Ulmus americana), American alumroot (Heuchera americana), common felwort (Swertia perennis), great yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea), culantro (Eryngium foetidum), marsh pennywort (Hydrocotyle vulgaris), common sanicle (Sanicula europaea), great masterwort (Astrantia major), sickle-leaved hare’s ear (Bupleurum falcatum), Mediterranean hartwort (Tordylium apulum), bur-parsley (Caucalis platycarpos), artedia (Artedia squamata), carrot (Daucus carota), false bishop’s weed (Ammi majus), black cumin (Bunium bulbocastanum), poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), hog’s fennel (Peucedanum officinale), sea fennel (Crithmum maritimum), giant fennel (Ferula communis), broad-leaved sermountain (Laserpitium latifolium), common hogweed (Heracleum sphondylium), Scots lovage (Ligusticum scoticum), garden angelica (Angelica archangelica), great water-parsnip (Sium latifolium), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), tubular water dropwort (Oenanthe fistulosa), cowbane (Cicuta virosa), fool’s parsley (Aethusa cynapium), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), shepherd’s-needle (Scandix pecten-veneris), bulbous-chervil (Chaerophyllum bulbosum), true masterwort (Imperatoria ostruthium or Peucedanum ostruthium), fennel (Seseli foeniculum, now Foeniculum vulgare), villous deadly carrot (Thapsia villosa), parsnip (Pastinaca sativa), alexander (Smyrnium olusatrum), dill (Anethum graveolens), caraway (Carum carvi), anis (Pimpinella anisum), celery (Apium graveolens), ground elder (Aegopodium podagraria). Credits to Isidre Blanc (dog-strangling vine), Stan Shebs (dogbane), Eurico Zimbres (starfish flower), Kristian Peters (rupturewort), Luigi Rignanese (saltwort), Michael J. Plagens (pigweed), Melissa McMasters (elm), Derek Ramsey (alumroot), Bernd Haynold (felwort), H. Zell (masterwort, hemlock, hogweed, cowbane, fool’s parsley, fennel, celery), Donald Hobern (hartwort), Stefan Lefnaer (bur-parsley), Daniel Villafruela (false bishop’s weed), Radio Tonreg (hog’s fennel), Jean Tosti (giant fennel), Meneerke Bloem (sermountain, true masterwort), Christian Fischer (angelica, water dropwort), Jeremy Halls (water-parsnip), G. Hagedorn (shepherd’s-needle), Franz Xaver (chervil, ground elder), Magnus Manske (parsnip), Tato Grasso (alexander), Matt Lavin (dill), Rolf Engstrand (caraway), Raffi Kojian (anis), Wikimedia users Lucarelli (silkvine), Rasbak (beet), Vinayaraj (bachelor button), Philipendula (gentian), Mokkie (culantro), Alians PL (pennywort), Fornax (hare’s ear), Ixitixel (carrot), Aroche (sea fennel), Stemonitis (lovage), Rlevse (coriander), and flickr users Gaspa (black cumin) and alliumherbal (cumin).

The order Pentandria Digynia included the following species (from left to right, top to bottom): common silkvine (Periploca graeca), acute dog-strangling vine (Cynanchum acutum), fly-trap dogbane (Apocynum androsaemifolium), white milkweed (Asclepias variegata), starfish flower (Stapelia hirsuta), smooth rupturewort (Herniaria glabra), white goosefoot (Chenopodium album), beet (Beta vulgaris), common saltwort (Salsola soda), common alkaliweed (Cressa cretica), black pigweed (Trianthema portulacastrum), bachelor button (Gomphrena globosa), American elm (Ulmus americana), American alumroot (Heuchera americana), common felwort (Swertia perennis), great yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea), culantro (Eryngium foetidum), marsh pennywort (Hydrocotyle vulgaris), common sanicle (Sanicula europaea), great masterwort (Astrantia major), sickle-leaved hare’s ear (Bupleurum falcatum), Mediterranean hartwort (Tordylium apulum), bur-parsley (Caucalis platycarpos), artedia (Artedia squamata), carrot (Daucus carota), false bishop’s weed (Ammi majus), black cumin (Bunium bulbocastanum), poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), hog’s fennel (Peucedanum officinale), sea fennel (Crithmum maritimum), giant fennel (Ferula communis), broad-leaved sermountain (Laserpitium latifolium), common hogweed (Heracleum sphondylium), Scots lovage (Ligusticum scoticum), garden angelica (Angelica archangelica), great water-parsnip (Sium latifolium), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), tubular water dropwort (Oenanthe fistulosa), cowbane (Cicuta virosa), fool’s parsley (Aethusa cynapium), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), shepherd’s-needle (Scandix pecten-veneris), bulbous-chervil (Chaerophyllum bulbosum), true masterwort (Imperatoria ostruthium or Peucedanum ostruthium), fennel (Seseli foeniculum, now Foeniculum vulgare), villous deadly carrot (Thapsia villosa), parsnip (Pastinaca sativa), alexander (Smyrnium olusatrum), dill (Anethum graveolens), caraway (Carum carvi), anis (Pimpinella anisum), celery (Apium graveolens), ground elder (Aegopodium podagraria). Credits to Isidre Blanc (dog-strangling vine), Stan Shebs (dogbane), Eurico Zimbres (starfish flower), Kristian Peters (rupturewort), Luigi Rignanese (saltwort), Michael J. Plagens (pigweed), Melissa McMasters (elm), Derek Ramsey (alumroot), Bernd Haynold (felwort), H. Zell (masterwort, hemlock, hogweed, cowbane, fool’s parsley, fennel, celery), Donald Hobern (hartwort), Stefan Lefnaer (bur-parsley), Daniel Villafruela (false bishop’s weed), Radio Tonreg (hog’s fennel), Jean Tosti (giant fennel), Meneerke Bloem (sermountain, true masterwort), Christian Fischer (angelica, water dropwort), Jeremy Halls (water-parsnip), G. Hagedorn (shepherd’s-needle), Franz Xaver (chervil, ground elder), Magnus Manske (parsnip), Tato Grasso (alexander), Matt Lavin (dill), Rolf Engstrand (caraway), Raffi Kojian (anis), Wikimedia users Lucarelli (silkvine), Rasbak (beet), Vinayaraj (bachelor button), Philipendula (gentian), Mokkie (culantro), Alians PL (pennywort), Fornax (hare’s ear), Ixitixel (carrot), Aroche (sea fennel), Stemonitis (lovage), Rlevse (coriander), and flickr users Gaspa (black cumin) and alliumherbal (cumin).

5.3 Pentandria Trigynia (“five males and three females”), five stamens and three pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Rhus (sumacs), Viburnum (viburnums), Cassine (false olives), Sambucus (elders), Staphylea (bladdernuts), Tamarix (tamarisks), Turnera (turneras), Telephium (telephiums), Corrigiola (strapwort), Pharnaceum (carpetweeds), Alsine (chickweeds), Basella (Indian spinachs), Sarothra (orangegrass).

The 12 species in this image were in the order Pentandria Trigynia (from left to right, top to bottom): ladder’s sumac (Rhus coriaria), wayfarer (Viburnum lantana), Cape saffron (Cassine peragua), European black elder (Sambucus nigra), European bladdernut (Staphylea pinnata), French tamarisk (Tamarix gallica), yellow alder (Turnera ulmifolia), common telephium (Telephium imperati), strapwort (Corrigiola litoralis), chickweed (Alsine media, now Stellaria media), Malabar spinach (Basella alba), orangegrass (Sarothra gentianoides, now Hypericum gentianoides). Credits to Isidre Blanc (wayfarer), Sten Porse (bladdernut), Michael Wolf (yellow alder), Gideon Pisanti (telephium), Bob Peterson (orangegrass), and Wikimedia users Aroche (strapwort) and Shizhao (Malabar spinach).

The 12 species in this image were in the order Pentandria Trigynia (from left to right, top to bottom): ladder’s sumac (Rhus coriaria), wayfarer (Viburnum lantana), Cape saffron (Cassine peragua), European black elder (Sambucus nigra), European bladdernut (Staphylea pinnata), French tamarisk (Tamarix gallica), yellow alder (Turnera ulmifolia), common telephium (Telephium imperati), strapwort (Corrigiola litoralis), chickweed (Alsine media, now Stellaria media), Malabar spinach (Basella alba), orangegrass (Sarothra gentianoides, now Hypericum gentianoides). Credits to Isidre Blanc (wayfarer), Sten Porse (bladdernut), Michael Wolf (yellow alder), Gideon Pisanti (telephium), Bob Peterson (orangegrass), and Wikimedia users Aroche (strapwort) and Shizhao (Malabar spinach).

5.4 Pentandria Tetragynia (“five males and four females”), five stamens and four pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Parnassia (grass of Parnassus).

5.5 Pentandria Pentagynia (“five males and five females”), five stamens and five pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Aralia (spikenards), Barreria (a species of unresolved identity), Statice (statices), Linum (flaxes), Aldrovanda (waterwheels), Drosera (sundews), Crassula (crassulas), Suriana (bay cedar), Sibbaldia (sibbaldia).

5.6 Pentandria Polygynia (“five males and many females”), five stamens and many pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Myosurus (mousetails).

(From left to right, top to bottom) A single species, the grass-of-Parnassus (Parnassia palustris) made up the order Pentandria Tetragynia. The following eight species were in the order Pentandria Pentagynia: devil’s walkingstick (Aralia spinosa), common statice (Statice limonium, now Limonium vulgare), common flax (Linum usitatissimum), waterwheel (Aldrovanda vesiculosa), common sundew (Drosera rotundifolia), pine crassula (Crassula tetragona), bay cedar (Suriana maritima), creeping sibbaldia (Sibbaldia procumbens). The last species, the mousetail (Myosurus minimus), was the only one in the order Pentandria Polygynia. Credits to James H. Miller & Ted Bodner (devil’s walkingstick), Olivier Pichard (statice), Denis Barthel (waterwheel), Michal Rubeš (sundew), André Karwath (crassula), B. Navez (bay cedar), Wikimedia users Tigerente (grass-of-Parnassus), 4d44 (flax) and Fornax (mousetail), and flickr user pellaea (sibbaldia).

(From left to right, top to bottom) A single species, the grass-of-Parnassus (Parnassia palustris) made up the order Pentandria Tetragynia. The following eight species were in the order Pentandria Pentagynia: devil’s walkingstick (Aralia spinosa), common statice (Statice limonium, now Limonium vulgare), common flax (Linum usitatissimum), waterwheel (Aldrovanda vesiculosa), common sundew (Drosera rotundifolia), pine crassula (Crassula tetragona), bay cedar (Suriana maritima), creeping sibbaldia (Sibbaldia procumbens). The last species, the mousetail (Myosurus minimus), was the only one in the order Pentandria Polygynia. Credits to James H. Miller & Ted Bodner (devil’s walkingstick), Olivier Pichard (statice), Denis Barthel (waterwheel), Michal Rubeš (sundew), André Karwath (crassula), B. Navez (bay cedar), Wikimedia users Tigerente (grass-of-Parnassus), 4d44 (flax) and Fornax (mousetail), and flickr user pellaea (sibbaldia).

6. Hexandria (“six males”)

“Six husbands in each marriage”, i.e., six stamens in a hermaphrodite flower.

6.1 Hexandria Monogynia (“six males and one female”), six stamens and one pistil in a hermaphrodite flower: Bromelia (large spiny bromeliads), Tillandsia (airplants), Renealmia (airplant mosses), Burmannia (bluethreads), Tradescantia (spiderworts), Pontederia (pickerel weeds), Galanthus (snowdrops), Leucojum (snowbells), Narcissus (daffodils), Pancratium (rain flowers), Crinum (swamplilies), Amaryllis (amaryllis and rain lilies), Bulbocodium (meadow-saffrons), Aphyllanthes (straw lily), Allium (garlics, leeks, onions, chives), Lilium (true lilies), Fritillaria (fritillaries), Uvularia (bellworts), Gloriosa (glory lily), Erythronium (dog’s-tooth-violet), Tulipa (tulips), Ornithogalum (stars-of-Bethlehem), Scilla (squills), Asphodelus (asphodels), Anthericum (St. Bernard’s-lilies), Leontice (lion flowers), Asparagus (asparaguses), Convallaria (lily-of-the-valley, solomon’s-seals), Polianthes (tuberose), Hyacinthus (hyacinths and bluebells),  Cyanella (little blues), Aletris (colicroots), Yucca (yuccas), Aloe (aloes), Agave (agaves), Hemerocallis (daylilies), Hypoxis (stargrasses), Acorus (sweetflags), Orontium (golden club), Haemanthus (blood lilies), Calaus (rotang), Juncus (rushes), Hippocratea (hippocratea), Richardia (pusleys), Achras (sapodilla), Prinos (winterberries), Berberis (barberries), Loranthus (mistletoes), Frankenia (seaheaths), Peplis (water-purslane).

The order Hexandria Monogynia included (from left to right, top to bottom): karatas bromeliad (Bromelia karatas), narrowleaf airplant (Tillandsia tenuifolia), Spannish moss (Renealmia usneoides, now Tillandsia usneoides), Virginia spiderwort (Tradescantia virginiana), common pickerel weed (Pontederia cordata), common snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis), summer snowbell (Leucojum aestivum), poet’s daffodil (Narcissus poeticus), Ceylon’s rain flower (Pancratium zeylanicum), American swamplily (Crinum americanum), belladonna-lily (Amaryllis belladonna), spring meadow saffron (Bulbocodium vernum, now Colchicum bulbocodium), straw lily (Aphyllanthes monspeliensis), garlic (Allium sativum), Madonna lily (Lilium candidum), imperial fritillary (Fritillaria imperialis ), perfoliate bellwort (Uvularia perfoliata), glory lily (Gloriosa superba), dog’s-tooth-violet (Erythronium dens-canis), garden tulip (Tulipa gesneriana), Prussian asparagus (Ornithogalum pyrenaicum), Alpine squill (Scilla bifolia), onion-leaved asphodel (Asphodelus fistulosus), branched St. Bernard’s-lily (Anthericum ramosum), common lion flower (Leontice leontopelatum), garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis), lily-of-the-valley (Convallaria majalis), tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa), common hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis), common colicroot (Aletris farinosa), aloe yucca (Yucca aloifolia), tiger aloe (Aloe variegata), centuryplant (Agave americana), lemon lily (Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus), South American stargrass (Hypoxis decumbens), sweetflag (Acorus calamus), golden club (Orontium aquaticum), blood lily (Haemanthus coccineus), rotang (Calamus rotang), sharp rush (Juncus acutus), Florida pusley (Richardia scabra), sapodilla (Achras zapota, now Manilkara zapota), common winterberry (Prinos verticillatus, now Ilex verticillata), common barberry (Berberis vulgaris), western mistletoe (Loranthus occidentalis, now Oryctanthus occidentalis), common seaheath (Frankenia laevis), water purslane (Peplis portula, now Lythrum portula). Credits to Kurt Stüber (karatas, spiderwort, snowbell), Michael Wolf (airplant), Christian Hummert (daffodil), Muhammad Mahdi Karim (rain flower), Gerald J. Lenhard (swamplily), Stan Shebs (belladonna-lily), Muriel Bendel (meadow saffron), Hans Hillewaert (straw lily, asphodel), Jason Hollinger (bellwort), Jean-Jacques Milan (glory lily), Accord H. Brisse (dog’s-tooth-violet, seaheath), Andreas Eichler (squill), Albert Häglsperger (St. Bernard’s lily), Kristian Peters (asparagus), H. Zell (lily of the valley, sweetflag), Jayesh Patil (tuberose), Stanislav Doronenko (lemon lily), Bernard Dupont (rotang), Krzysztof Ziarnek (rush), Bob Peterson (pusley), Fritz Flohr Reynolds (winterberry), Teun Spaans (barberry), Reinaldo Aguilar (mistletoe), Olivier Pichard (water-purslane) and Wikimedia users KENPEI (pickerel weed, centuryplant, blood lily), Caroig (snowdrop), AfroBrazilian (garlic), Gidip (Madonna lily), Fizykaa (tulip), Patrice78500 (Prussian asparagus), Averater (lion flower), Eitan f (hyacinth), 1978 (stargrass), Aruna (sapodilla).

The order Hexandria Monogynia included (from left to right, top to bottom): karatas bromeliad (Bromelia karatas), narrowleaf airplant (Tillandsia tenuifolia), Spannish moss (Renealmia usneoides, now Tillandsia usneoides), Virginia spiderwort (Tradescantia virginiana), common pickerel weed (Pontederia cordata), common snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis), summer snowbell (Leucojum aestivum), poet’s daffodil (Narcissus poeticus), Ceylon’s rain flower (Pancratium zeylanicum), American swamplily (Crinum americanum), belladonna-lily (Amaryllis belladonna), spring meadow saffron (Bulbocodium vernum, now Colchicum bulbocodium), straw lily (Aphyllanthes monspeliensis), garlic (Allium sativum), Madonna lily (Lilium candidum), imperial fritillary (Fritillaria imperialis ), perfoliate bellwort (Uvularia perfoliata), glory lily (Gloriosa superba), dog’s-tooth-violet (Erythronium dens-canis), garden tulip (Tulipa gesneriana), Prussian asparagus (Ornithogalum pyrenaicum), Alpine squill (Scilla bifolia), onion-leaved asphodel (Asphodelus fistulosus), branched St. Bernard’s-lily (Anthericum ramosum), common lion flower (Leontice leontopelatum), garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis), lily-of-the-valley (Convallaria majalis), tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa), common hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis), common colicroot (Aletris farinosa), aloe yucca (Yucca aloifolia), tiger aloe (Aloe variegata), centuryplant (Agave americana), lemon lily (Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus), South American stargrass (Hypoxis decumbens), sweetflag (Acorus calamus), golden club (Orontium aquaticum), blood lily (Haemanthus coccineus), rotang (Calamus rotang), sharp rush (Juncus acutus), Florida pusley (Richardia scabra), sapodilla (Achras zapota, now Manilkara zapota), common winterberry (Prinos verticillatus, now Ilex verticillata), common barberry (Berberis vulgaris), western mistletoe (Loranthus occidentalis, now Oryctanthus occidentalis), common seaheath (Frankenia laevis), water purslane (Peplis portula, now Lythrum portula). Credits to Kurt Stüber (karatas, spiderwort, snowbell), Michael Wolf (airplant), Christian Hummert (daffodil), Muhammad Mahdi Karim (rain flower), Gerald J. Lenhard (swamplily), Stan Shebs (belladonna-lily), Muriel Bendel (meadow saffron), Hans Hillewaert (straw lily, asphodel), Jason Hollinger (bellwort), Jean-Jacques Milan (glory lily), Accord H. Brisse (dog’s-tooth-violet, seaheath), Andreas Eichler (squill), Albert Häglsperger (St. Bernard’s lily), Kristian Peters (asparagus), H. Zell (lily of the valley, sweetflag), Jayesh Patil (tuberose), Stanislav Doronenko (lemon lily), Bernard Dupont (rotang), Krzysztof Ziarnek (rush), Bob Peterson (pusley), Fritz Flohr Reynolds (winterberry), Teun Spaans (barberry), Reinaldo Aguilar (mistletoe), Olivier Pichard (water-purslane) and Wikimedia users KENPEI (pickerel weed, centuryplant, blood lily), Caroig (snowdrop), AfroBrazilian (garlic), Gidip (Madonna lily), Fizykaa (tulip), Patrice78500 (Prussian asparagus), Averater (lion flower), Eitan f (hyacinth), 1978 (stargrass), Aruna (sapodilla).

6.2 Hexandria Digynia (“sex males and two females”), six stamens and  two pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Velezia (velezia), Oryza (rice), Atraphaxis (atraphaxis).

The small order Hexandria Digynia contained this three species (from left to right): velezia (Velezia rigida), rice (Oryza sativa), spiny atraphaxis (Atraphaxis spinosa). Credits to Barry Breckling (velezia) and Ori Fragman-Sapir (atraphaxis).

The small order Hexandria Digynia contained this three species (from left to right): velezia (Velezia rigida), rice (Oryza sativa), spiny atraphaxis (Atraphaxis spinosa). Credits to Barry Breckling (velezia) and Ori Fragman-Sapir (atraphaxis).

6.3 Hexandria Trigynia (“six males and three females”), six stamens and three pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Flagellaria (whip  vine), Rumex (docks and sorrels), Scheuchzeria (podgrass), Triglochin (arrowgrasses), Melanthium (bunchflowers), Medeola (Indian cucumber and some asparagus), Trillium (trilliums), Menispermum (moonseeds), Saururus (lizard’s tail), Colchicum (meadow saffrons), Helonias (swamp pink).

These 11 species (from left to right, top to bottom) were in the order Hexandria Trigynia: whip vine (Flagellaria indica), patience dock (Rumex patientia), podgrass (Scheuchzeria palustris), marsh arrowgrass (Triglochin palustris), Virginia buchflower (Melanthium virginicum), Indian cucumber (Medeola virginiana), nodding trillium (Trillium cernuum), Canadian moonseed (Menispermum canadense), American lizard’s tail (Saururus cernuus), common meadow-saffron (Colchicum autumnale), swamp pink (Helonias bullata). Credits to Raffi Kojian (whip vine), Emőke Dénes (dock), Kristian Peters (arrowgrass), Fritz Flohr Reynolds (lizard’s tail), H. Zell (swamp pink), and Wikimedia users Bertblok (podgrass), Uleli (bunchflower), Jomegat (Indian cucumber), Fungus Guy (trillium), Nadiatalent (moonseed), Cquoi (meadow-saffron).

These 11 species (from left to right, top to bottom) were in the order Hexandria Trigynia: whip vine (Flagellaria indica), patience dock (Rumex patientia), podgrass (Scheuchzeria palustris), marsh arrowgrass (Triglochin palustris), Virginia buchflower (Melanthium virginicum), Indian cucumber (Medeola virginiana), nodding trillium (Trillium cernuum), Canadian moonseed (Menispermum canadense), American lizard’s tail (Saururus cernuus), common meadow-saffron (Colchicum autumnale), swamp pink (Helonias bullata). Credits to Raffi Kojian (whip vine), Emőke Dénes (dock), Kristian Peters (arrowgrass), Fritz Flohr Reynolds (lizard’s tail), H. Zell (swamp pink), and Wikimedia users Bertblok (podgrass), Uleli (bunchflower), Jomegat (Indian cucumber), Fungus Guy (trillium), Nadiatalent (moonseed), Cquoi (meadow-saffron).

6.4 Hexandria Tetragynia (“six males and four females”), six stamens and four pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Petiveria (guinea henweed).

6.5 Hexandria Polygynia (“six males and many females”), six stamens and many pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Alisma (water-plantains).

The guinea henweed (Petiveria alliacea, left) was the single species in the order Hexandria Tetragynia, and the common water-plantain (Alisma plantago-aquatica, right) was one of the few species in the order Hexandria Polygynia, Credits to Wikimedia users Toluaye (guinea henweed) and Bff (water-plantain).

The guinea henweed (Petiveria alliacea, left) was the single species in the order Hexandria Tetragynia, and the common water-plantain (Alisma plantago-aquatica, right) was one of the few species in the order Hexandria Polygynia, Credits to Wikimedia users Toluaye (guinea henweed) and Bff (water-plantain).

Several plants that are indeed genetically related, such as those that would later be called “Umbelliferae” and “Liliaceae”, appear in the same orders already in Linnaeus’ System, but there are yet many bizarre discrepancies. For example, how could he classify the rice so distant from other cereals and grasses?

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References:

Linnaeus, C. (1758) Systema Naturae per regna tria Naturae…

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