Monthly Archives: April 2016

New species: April last week

by Piter Kehoma Boll

Here is a list of species described from April 22 to April 30. It certainly does not include all described species. Most information comes from the journals Mycokeys, Phytokeys, Zookeys, Phytotaxa, Zootaxa and International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology.

Trigonopterus_chewbacca

Trigonopterus chewbacca Van Dam & Riedel, 2016 is a recently described wookie, I mean beetle.

Bacteria:

Plants:

Amoebozoans:

Fungi:

Flatworms:

Mollusks:

Arachnids:

Crustaceans:

Hexapods:

Ray-finned fishes:

Reptiles:

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Friday Fellow: Nothern Screamer

by Rafael Nascimento

A relative of the southern screamer and the horned screamer that is much less known is the northern screamer (Chauna chavaria). These three birds form the family Anhimidae, which, despite superficially not looking like, are relatives of the ducks and geese (previously they were thought to be relatives of the chickens, the Galliformes).

Tachã-de-pescoço-preto. Foto de Brodie Ferguson.*

The northern screamer. Photo by Brodie Ferguson.*

Measuring 76 to 91 cm and being slightly smaller than the southern screamer, with which it shares the genus, the northern screamer is characterized by a darker overall plumage and a larger black mark on the neck. These birds are very vocal and remarkable because of their crests.

While the horned and the southern screamers have a wide distribution, the northern screamer is a rare bird and is considered “near threatened” by the IUCN. It can only be found in north Colombia an northwest Venezuela, inhabiting marshes, lakes and river banks of forest areas. Most of its food is composed by plant material, such as roots, leaves, sprouts and other parts of aquatic plants.

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References:

BirdLife International. 2015. Chauna chavaria. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22679726A83833043. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T22679726A83833043.en. Acessado em 21 de abril de 2016.

Carboneras, C., Boesman, P., Kirwan, G.M. & Sharpe, C.J. (2016). Northern Screamer (Chauna chavaria). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (Retrieved from http://www.hbw.com/node/52792 in April 21, 2016).

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*This image is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic License.

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The history of Systematics: Plants in Systema Naturae, 1758 (Part 1)

by Piter Kehoma Boll

Now that I finished introducing Linnaeus classification of animals (see here parts 1, 2, 3, and 4), it’s time to talk about the plants. This is Part 1. See here parts 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7.

Linnaeus’ classification of plants actually started a little bit earlier than that of animals, in his work Species Plantarum published in 1753. The system he used there, however, did not change very much from the one presented in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, so I’ll begin from there, so that they will be following animals at the same pace.

If you have a considerable knowledge on living beings, you can easily notice that plants are much more “regular” in anatomy than animals. Even though plants are usually assymetrical, branched and with temporary organs, they all have basically the same general structure composed by a root, a stem, leaves and reproductive organs.

Linnaeus struggled to find ways to classify animals based on the same organs in all groups. As a result, his classification of animals had an “ugly” tree structure. There were 6 classes, each with different orders, i.e., it was impossible for him to use the same criteria to define the orders of mammals that he used to define orders of birds or worms, but in plants that worked and, as a result, the classification of plants had a “beautiful” table structure.

The 24 classes of plants were based primarily on the number of male sexual organs. The orders, on the other hand, were based on the number of female sexual organs. As a result, orders are not exactly subordinate to classes, but coexist with them in a “crossed”, tabular way.

1. Monandria (“single male”)

“A single husband in the marriage”, i.e., a single stamen in a hermaphrodite flower.

1.1 Monandria monogynia (“single male and single female”), a single stamen and a single pistil in a hermaphrodite flower: Canna (canna lilies), Amomum (gingers and cardamoms), Costus (spiral gingers), Alpinia (ginger lilies), Maranta (arrowroots), Curcuma (turmeric and Chinese ginger), Kaempferia (sand gingers), Thalia (alligator flags), Boerhavia (spiderlings), Salicornia (glasswort), Hippuris (mare’s tails).

This eleven species were classified by Linnaeus as Monandria Monogynia, having “monogamic flowers”: Canna indica, garden ginger (Amomum zingiber, now Zingiber officinalis), Arabic spiral ginger (Costus arabicus), Lesses Antilles’ ginger lily (Alpinia racemosa, now Renealmia pyramidalis), West Indian arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), turmeric (Curcuma longa), sand ginger (Kaempferia galanga), bent alligator flag (Thalia geniculata), erect spiderling (Boerhavia erecta), common glasswort (Salicornia europaea), common mare’s tail (Hippuris vulgaris). Credits to Wikimedia user Asio otus (Canna), Reinaldo Aguilar (garden ginger), Smithsonian Institute (spiral ginger, ginger lily, sand ginger), Alexis López Hernández (arrowroot), H. Zell (turmeric, mare’s tail), Meneerke Bloem (alligator flag), J. M. Garg (spiderling), Wikimedia user Ghislain18 (glasswort).

These eleven species were classified by Linnaeus as Monandria Monogynia, having “monogamic flowers” (from left to right, top to bottom): Canna indica, garden ginger (Amomum zingiber, now Zingiber officinalis), Arabic spiral ginger (Costus arabicus), Lesses Antilles’ ginger lily (Alpinia racemosa, now Renealmia pyramidalis), West Indian arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), turmeric (Curcuma longa), sand ginger (Kaempferia galanga), bent alligator flag (Thalia geniculata), erect spiderling (Boerhavia erecta), common glasswort (Salicornia europaea), common mare’s tail (Hippuris vulgaris). Credits to Wikimedia user Asio otus (Canna), Reinaldo Aguilar (garden ginger), Smithsonian Institute (spiral ginger, ginger lily, sand ginger), Alexis López Hernández (arrowroot), H. Zell (turmeric, mare’s tail), Meneerke Bloem (alligator flag), J. M. Garg (spiderling), Wikimedia user Ghislain18 (glasswort).

1.2 Monandria digynia (“single male and two females”), a single stamen and two pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Corispermum (bugseeds), Callitriche (water starworts), Blitum (goosefeet), Cinna (woodreeds).

The order Monandria Digynia, “a husband with two wives”, included the following species (from left to right): hyssop-leaved bugseed (Corispermum hyssopifolium), common water starwort (Callitriche palustris), strawberry goosefoot (Blitum capitatum), sweet woodreed (Cinna arundinacea). Credits to Yu Ito (water starwort), Derek Ramsey (goosefoot), John Hilty (woodreed).

The order Monandria Digynia, “a husband with two wives”, included the following species (from left to right): hyssop-leaved bugseed (Corispermum hyssopifolium), common water starwort (Callitriche palustris), strawberry goosefoot (Blitum capitatum), sweet woodreed (Cinna arundinacea). Credits to Yu Ito (water starwort), Derek Ramsey (goosefoot), John Hilty (woodreed).

2. Diandria (“two males”)

“Two husbands in each marriage”, i.e., two stamens in a hermaphrodite flower.

2.1 Diandria Monogynia (“two males and single female”), two stamens and a single pistil in a hermaphrodite flower: Nyctanthes (jasmines), Jasminum (more jasmines), Ligustrum (privets), Phyllirea (mock privets), Olea (olives), Chionanthus (fringetrees), Syringa (lilacs), Eranthemum (blue sages), Circaea (enchanter’s nightshades), Veronica (speedwells), Justicia (shrimp plants), Dianthera (water willows), Gratiola (hedgehyssops), Pinguicula (butterworts), Utricularia (bladderworts), Verbena (vervains), Lycopus (gypsyworts), Amethystea (Indian gems), Ziziphora (ziziphores), Monarda (bergamots), Rosmarinus (rosemary), Salvia (sages), Collinsonia (ox-balm), Morina (whorlflower).

The order Diandria Monogynia, “two husbands and a wife”, included the following species (from left to right, top to bottom): night-flowering jasmine (Nyctanthes arbor-tristis), common jasmine (Jasminum officinale), common privet (Ligustrum vulgare), mock privet (Phillyrea latifolia), olive (Olea europaea), white fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus), common lilac (Syringa vulgaris), Paris enchanter’s nightshade (Circaea lutetiana), bird’s-eye speedwell (Veronica chamaedrys), squirrel’s tail (Justicia betonica), American water-willow (Dianthera americana, now Justicia americana), Austral brooklime (Gratiola peruviana), pale butterwort (Pinguicula lusitanica), common bladderwort (Utricularia vulgaris), common vervain (Verbena officinalis), gypsywort (Lycopus europaeus), headed ziziphore (Ziziphora capitata), bee balm (Monarda fistulosa), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), common sage (Salvia officinalis), ox-balm (Collinsonia canadensis), prickly whorlflower (Morina persica). Credits to J. M. Garg (night-flowering jasmine), Wikimedia user Pancrat (jasmine), Andrew Butko (privet), legambientearcipelagotoscano.it (mock privet), H. Zell (olive, gypsywort, ox-balm), Ranko Tomić (lilac), Wikimedia user Pethan (enchanter’s nightshade, whorlflower), Wikimedia user Algirdas (speedwell), India Biodiversity Portal (squirrel’s tail), flickr user peganum (water-willow), John Tann (brooklime), Noah Elhardt (butterwort), Christian Fischer (bladderwort), Denis Barthel (vervain), Gideon Pisanty (ziziphore), Kurt Stüber (bee balm), Giancarlo Dessi (rosemary), Wikimedia user Duk (sage).

The order Diandria Monogynia, “two husbands and a wife”, included the following species (from left to right, top to bottom): night-flowering jasmine (Nyctanthes arbor-tristis), common jasmine (Jasminum officinale), common privet (Ligustrum vulgare), mock privet (Phillyrea latifolia), olive (Olea europaea), white fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus), common lilac (Syringa vulgaris), Paris enchanter’s nightshade (Circaea lutetiana), bird’s-eye speedwell (Veronica chamaedrys), squirrel’s tail (Justicia betonica), American water-willow (Dianthera americana, now Justicia americana), Austral brooklime (Gratiola peruviana), pale butterwort (Pinguicula lusitanica), common bladderwort (Utricularia vulgaris), common vervain (Verbena officinalis), gypsywort (Lycopus europaeus), headed ziziphore (Ziziphora capitata), bee balm (Monarda fistulosa), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), common sage (Salvia officinalis), ox-balm (Collinsonia canadensis), prickly whorlflower (Morina persica). Credits to J. M. Garg (night-flowering jasmine), Wikimedia user Pancrat (jasmine), Andrew Butko (privet), legambientearcipelagotoscano.it (mock privet), H. Zell (olive, gypsywort, ox-balm), Ranko Tomić (lilac), Wikimedia user Pethan (enchanter’s nightshade, whorlflower), Wikimedia user Algirdas (speedwell), India Biodiversity Portal (squirrel’s tail), flickr user peganum (water-willow), John Tann (brooklime), Noah Elhardt (butterwort), Christian Fischer (bladderwort), Denis Barthel (vervain), Gideon Pisanty (ziziphore), Kurt Stüber (bee balm), Giancarlo Dessi (rosemary), Wikimedia user Duk (sage).

2.2 Diandria Digynia (“two males and two females”), two stamens and two pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Paspalum (paspalums), Anthoxanthum (vernal grasses), Bufonia (bufonias).

2.3 Diandria Trigynia (“two males and three females”), two stamens and three pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Piper (peppers and radiator plants).

The two first species (from left to right) were included in the order Diandria Digynia: knotgrass (Paspalum distichum) and sweet vernal grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum). The last species, the black pepper (Piper nigrum) was in the order Diandria Trigynia. Credits to Wikimedia user Keisotyo (knotgrass), Christian Fischer (vernal grass), H. Zell (pepper).

The two first species (from left to right) were included in the order Diandria Digynia: knotgrass (Paspalum distichum) and sweet vernal grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum). The last species, the black pepper (Piper nigrum) was in the order Diandria Trigynia. Credits to Wikimedia user Keisotyo (knotgrass), Christian Fischer (vernal grass), H. Zell (pepper).

3. Triandria (“three males”)

“Three husbands in each marriage”, i.e., three stamens in a hermaphrodite flower.

3.1 Triandria Monogynia (“three males and one female”), three stamens and one pistil in a hermaphrodite flower: Valeriana (valerians), Hirtella (pigeon berries), Olax (mella), Tamarindus (tamarind), Cneorum (spurge olive), Comocladia (maidenplums), Melothria (creeping cucumber), Ortegia (ortegias), Loeflingia (pygmyleaves), Polycnemum (needleleaves), Cassytha (love vines), Crocus (crocuses), Ixia (corn lilies, irises, harlequin flowers), Gladiolus (sword lilies), Antholyza (sword lilies, bugle-lilies, etc), Iris (irises), Wachendorfia (redroots), Commelina (dayflowers and spiderworts),  Xyris (yelloweyed grasses), Schoenus (bogrushes, pricklegrasses and sawgrasses), Cyperus (sedges), Scirpus (clubrushes and spikerushes), Eriophorum (cottongrasses), Nardus (matgrass), Lygeum (esparto grass).

These 22 species were classified by Linnaeus as Triandria Monogynia: garden valerian (Valeriana officinalis), pigeon berry (Hirtella americana), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), spurge olive (Cneorum tricoccon), creeping cucumber (Melothria pendula), Spanish ortegia (Ortegia hispanica), field needleleaf (Polycnemum arvense), love vine (Cassytha filiformis), saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), harlequin flower (Ixia bulbifera, now Sparaxis bulbifera), long-tubed painted lady (Gladiolus angustus), bulbil bugle-lily (Antholyza meriana, now Watsonia meriana), bearded iris (Iris germanica), straw redroot (Wachendorfia paniculata), common dayflower (Commelina communis), Indian yelloweyed grass (Xyris indica), black bogrush (Schoenus nigricans), papyrus (Cyperus papyrus), floating clubrush (Scirpus fluitans, now Isolepis fluitans), hare’s-tail cottongrass (Eriophorum vaginatum), matgrass (Nardus stricta), esparto grass (Lygeum spartum). Credits to Kurt Stüber (valerian, papyrus), INBio Costa Rica (pigeon berry), Wikimedia user Tau’olonga (tamarind), Jean Tosti (spurge olive), Smithsonian Institute (creeping cucumber), Luis Fernández García (ortegia), Mark Marathon (love vine), Wikimedia user KENPEI (crocus, bearded iris), Wikimedia user Ixitixel (harlequin flower), Andrew Massy (painted lady), Forest & Kim Starr (bugle-lily), Ori Fragman-Sapir (redroot), Bogdan Giușcă (dayflower), Wikimedia user Quoilp (yelloweyed grass), Yu Ito (clubrush), Kristian Peters (cottongrass), James K. Lindsey (matgrass), Wikimedia user Nanosanchez (esparto grass).

These 22 species were classified by Linnaeus as Triandria Monogynia (from left to right, top to bottom): garden valerian (Valeriana officinalis), pigeon berry (Hirtella americana), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), spurge olive (Cneorum tricoccon), creeping cucumber (Melothria pendula), Spanish ortegia (Ortegia hispanica), field needleleaf (Polycnemum arvense), love vine (Cassytha filiformis), saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), harlequin flower (Ixia bulbifera, now Sparaxis bulbifera), long-tubed painted lady (Gladiolus angustus), bulbil bugle-lily (Antholyza meriana, now Watsonia meriana), bearded iris (Iris germanica), straw redroot (Wachendorfia paniculata), common dayflower (Commelina communis), Indian yelloweyed grass (Xyris indica), black bogrush (Schoenus nigricans), papyrus (Cyperus papyrus), floating clubrush (Scirpus fluitans, now Isolepis fluitans), hare’s-tail cottongrass (Eriophorum vaginatum), matgrass (Nardus stricta), esparto grass (Lygeum spartum). Credits to Kurt Stüber (valerian, papyrus), INBio Costa Rica (pigeon berry), Wikimedia user Tau’olonga (tamarind), Jean Tosti (spurge olive), Smithsonian Institute (creeping cucumber), Luis Fernández García (ortegia), Mark Marathon (love vine), Wikimedia user KENPEI (crocus, bearded iris), Wikimedia user Ixitixel (harlequin flower), Andrew Massy (painted lady), Forest & Kim Starr (bugle-lily), Ori Fragman-Sapir (redroot), Bogdan Giușcă (dayflower), Wikimedia user Quoilp (yelloweyed grass), Yu Ito (clubrush), Kristian Peters (cottongrass), James K. Lindsey (matgrass), Wikimedia user Nanosanchez (esparto grass).

3.2 Triandria Digynia (“three males and two females”), three stamens and two pistils in an hermaphrodite flower: Bobartia (bobartias), Cornucopiae (hooded grasses), Saccharum (sugar cane), Phalaris (canarygrasses and cutgrasses), Panicum (panicgrasses and barnyard grasses), Phleum (cat’s-tails), Alopecurus (foxtail grasses), Milium (milletgrass), Agrostis (bentgrasses), Aira (hairgrasses), Melica (melicgrasses), Poa (meadowgrasses), Briza (quaking grasses), Uniola (sea oats), Dactylis (cocksfeet), Cynosurus (dogstail grasses), Festuca (fescues), Bromus (bromes), Stipa (feather grasses), Avena (oats and oatgrasses), Lagurus (hare’s tail), Arundo (canes, bamboos, reeds), Aristida (three-awns and grama grasses), Lolium (ryegrasses), Elymus (wild ryes), Secale (ryes), Hordeum (barleys), Triticum (wheats).

Among the species making up the order Triandria Digynia were (from left to right, top to bottom): Indian bobartia (Bobartia indica), common hooded grass (Cornucopiae cucullatum), sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum), common canarygrass (Phalaris cannariensis), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), timothy-grass (Phleum pretense), meadow foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis), wood millet (Milium effusum), common bent (Agrostis capillaris), silver hairgrass (Aira caryophyllea), hairy melic (Melica ciliata), Alpine meadowgrass (Poa alpina), big quaking grass (Briza maxima), sea oat (Uniola paniculata), cock’s foot (Dactylis glomerata), crested dog’s-tail (Cynosurus cristatus), red fescue (Festuca rubra), rye brome (Bromus secalinus), European feather grass (Stipa pennata), common oat (Avena sativa), hare’s tail (Lagurus ovatus), giant cane (Arundo donax), six-weeks three-awn grass (Aristida adscensionis), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), Canada wild rye (Elymus canadensis), rye (Secale cereale), barley (Hordeum vulgare), common wheat (Triticum aestivum). Credits to Andrew Massyn (bobartia), Ori Fragman-Sapir (hooded grass), Bruno Navez (sugar cane), biopix.com (canarygrass), Kelly O’Donnell (switchgrass), Wikimedia user Rasbak (timothy-grass, foxtail, crested dog’s-tail, ryegrass, rye, barley), Gustav Svensson (millet), James K. Lindsey (bent), Wikimedia user Xemenendura (melic), Jerzy Opiła (meadowgrass), H. Zell (quaking grass, oat), Hans Hillewaert (sea oat), flickr user foxypar4 (cock’s foot), Kristian Peters (fescue), Kurt Stüber (rye brome, hare’s tail), Wikimedia user Prazak (feather grass), Peter Forster (giant cane), Marco Schmidt (three-awn grass), Matt Lavin (wild rye), Petr Filippov (wheat).

Among the species making up the order Triandria Digynia were (from left to right, top to bottom): Indian bobartia (Bobartia indica), common hooded grass (Cornucopiae cucullatum), sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum), common canarygrass (Phalaris cannariensis), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), timothy-grass (Phleum pretense), meadow foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis), wood millet (Milium effusum), common bent (Agrostis capillaris), silver hairgrass (Aira caryophyllea), hairy melic (Melica ciliata), Alpine meadowgrass (Poa alpina), big quaking grass (Briza maxima), sea oat (Uniola paniculata), cock’s foot (Dactylis glomerata), crested dog’s-tail (Cynosurus cristatus), red fescue (Festuca rubra), rye brome (Bromus secalinus), European feather grass (Stipa pennata), common oat (Avena sativa), hare’s tail (Lagurus ovatus), giant cane (Arundo donax), six-weeks three-awn grass (Aristida adscensionis), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), Canada wild rye (Elymus canadensis), rye (Secale cereale), barley (Hordeum vulgare), common wheat (Triticum aestivum). Credits to Andrew Massyn (bobartia), Ori Fragman-Sapir (hooded grass), Bruno Navez (sugar cane), biopix.com (canarygrass), Kelly O’Donnell (switchgrass), Wikimedia user Rasbak (timothy-grass, foxtail, crested dog’s-tail, ryegrass, rye, barley), Gustav Svensson (millet), James K. Lindsey (bent), Wikimedia user Xemenendura (melic), Jerzy Opiła (meadowgrass), H. Zell (quaking grass, oat), Hans Hillewaert (sea oat), flickr user foxypar4 (cock’s foot), Kristian Peters (fescue), Kurt Stüber (rye brome, hare’s tail), Wikimedia user Prazak (feather grass), Peter Forster (giant cane), Marco Schmidt (three-awn grass), Matt Lavin (wild rye), Petr Filippov (wheat).

3.3 Triandria Trigynia (“three males and three females”), three stamens and three pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Eriocaulon (pipeworts), Montia (blinks), Proserpinaca (mermaidweeds), Triplaris (ant tree), Holosteum (jagged chickweeds), Polycarpon (allseeds), Mollugo (carpetweeds), Minuartia (sandworts), Queria (more sandworts), Lechea (pinweeds).

These 8 species were in the order Triandria Trigynia (from left to right, top to bottom): ten-angled pipewort (Eriocaulon decangulare), water blink (Montia fontana), marsh mermaidweed (Proserpinaca palustris), ant tree (Triplaris americana), jagged chickweed (Holosteum umbellatum), four-leaved allseed (Polycarpon tetraphyllum), green carpetweed (Mollugo verticillata), thymeleaf pinweed (Lechea minor). Credits to James K. Lindsey (blink), Wikimedia user JMK (ant tree), Forest & Kim Starr (allseed), Wikimedia user Eric in SF (carpetweed), John Hility (pinweed).

These 8 species were in the order Triandria Trigynia (from left to right, top to bottom): ten-angled pipewort (Eriocaulon decangulare), water blink (Montia fontana), marsh mermaidweed (Proserpinaca palustris), ant tree (Triplaris americana), jagged chickweed (Holosteum umbellatum), four-leaved allseed (Polycarpon tetraphyllum), green carpetweed (Mollugo verticillata), thymeleaf pinweed (Lechea minor). Credits to James K. Lindsey (blink), Wikimedia user JMK (ant tree), Forest & Kim Starr (allseed), Wikimedia user Eric in SF (carpetweed), John Hility (pinweed).

4. Tetrandria (“four males”)

“Four husbands in each marriage”, i.e., four stamens in a hermaphrodite flower.

4.1 Tetrandria Monogynia (“four males and one female”), four stamens and one pistil in a hermaphrodite flower: Leucadendron (sugar bushes), Protea (silver trees), Cephalanthus (buttonbushes), Globularia (globe daisies), Dipsacus (teasels), Scabiosa (scabioses), Knautia (more scabioses), Allionia (windmills), Hedyotis (starviolets), Spermacoce (false buttonweeds), Sherardia (field madders), Asperula (woodruffs), Diodia (buttonweeds), Knoxia (knoxia), Houstonia (bluet), Galium (bedstraws), Crucianella (crossworts), Rubia (madders), Fuchsia (fuchsias), Siphonanthus (Turk’s turban), Catesbaea (Lily thorn), Ixora (jungle flames), Scurrula (metrosexuals), Pavetta (pavettas), Avicennia (mangroves), Petesia (tropicroses), Mitchella (partridge berries), Callicarpa (beautyberries), Polypremum (juniperleaf), Penaea (leatherleaves), Blaeria (Blair’s heath), Buddleja (butterfly bushes), Exacum (tropicbouquets), Plantago (plantains), Scoparia (broomworts), Rhacoma (maidenberry), Centunculus (chaffweed), Sanguisorba (burnets), Cissus (sorrelvines), Epimedium (barrenworts), Cornus (dogwoods), Fagara (wild limes), Tomex (Malayan lilac), Ptelea (hoptrees), Ludwigia (water primroses), Oldenlandia (chay roots), Ammannia (redstems), Isnardia (water purslane), Trapa (water caltrop), Dorstenia (contrayervas), Elaeagnus (silverberries), Brabejum (wild almond), Krameria (rhatanies), Rivina (pigeonberry and hoopvine), Salvadora (toothbrush tree), Camphorosma (camphorwort), Alchemilla (lady’s mantles).

The diverse order Tetrandria Monogynia included many species, such as (from left to right, top to bottom): king sugar bush (Leucadendron cynaroides, now Protea cynaroides), silver leaf tree (Protea argentea, now Leucadendron argenteum), common buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), common ball flower (Globularia bisnagarica), wild teasel (Dipsacus fullonum), yellow scabiose (Scabiosa alpina, now Cephalaria alpina), common windmill (Allionia incarnata), ear starviolet (Hedyotis auricularia), slender false buttonweed (Spermacoce tenuior), blue field madder (Sherardia arvensis), blue woodruff (Asperula arvensis), Virginia buttonweed (Diodia virginiana), azure bluet (Houstonia caerulea), European bedstraw (Galium rubioides), narrowleaf crosswort (Crucianella angustifolia), common madder (Rubia tinctorum), three-leaved fuchsia (Fuchsia triphylla), Turk’s turban (Siphonanthus indicus, now Clerodendron indicum), lily thorn (Catesbaea spinosa), common jungle flame (Ixora coccinea), metrosexual (Scurrula parasitica), Indian pavetta (Pavetta indica), Indian mangrove (Avicennia officinalis), partridge berry (Mitchella repens), American beautyberry (Callicarpa americana), juniperleaf (Polypremum procumbens), cup leatherleaf (Penaea sarcocolla, now Saltera sarcocolla), American butterfly bush (Buddleja americana), greater plantain (Plantago major), sweet broom (Scoparia dulcis), maidenberry (Rhacoma crossopetalum, now Crossopetalum rhacoma), chaffweed (Centunculus minimus, now Lysimachia minima), great burnet (Sanguisorba officinalis), sorrelvine (Cirrus trifoliata), Alpine barrenwort (Epimedium alpinum), flowering dogwood (Cornus florida), wild lime (Fagara pterota, now Zanthoxylum fagara), great wooly Malayan lilac (Tomex tomentosa, now Callicarpa tomentosa), common hoptree (Ptelea trifoliata), rattlebox (Ludwigia alternifolia), chay root (Oldenlandia umbellata), monarch redstemm (Ammannia baccifera), water purslane (Isnardia palustris, now Ludwigia palustris), water caltrop (Trapa natans), true contrayerva (Dorstenia contrajerva), senjed (Elaeagnus angustifolia), wild almond (Brabejum stellatifolium), abrojo Colorado (Krameria ixine), pigeonberry (Rivina humilis), toothbrush tree (Salvadora persica), common camphorwort (Camphorosma monspeliaca), common lady’s mantle (Alchemilla vulgaris). Credits to Stan Shebs (sugar bush, windmill, plantain), Wikimedia user Chinasaur (silver leaf tree), Bob Peterson (buttonbush, buttonweed, juniperleaf), Hedwig Storch (ball flower), Muriel Bendel (teasel), Wikimedia user Dinkum (scabiose), flickr user john_amend_all2000 (starviolet), Smithsonian Institute (false buttonweed, fuchsia, maidenberry, sorrelvine, abrojo colorado), Wikimedia user Strobilomyces (field madder), Kurt Süber (woodruff), Rob Duval (bluet), Jan Ševčík (bedstraw), Michael Kesl (crosswort), H. Zell (madder, hoptree, lady’s mantle), Forest & Kim Starr (Turk’s turban), Louise Wolff (jungle flame), Indian Biodiversity Portal (metrosexual), Wikimedia user Vinayaraj (pavetta, Malayan lilac), Wikimedia user Vengolis (Indian mangrove), Wikimedia user Jomegat (partridge berry), John Murphy (beautyberry), Wikimedia user Nanosanchez (leatherleaf), Dick Culbert (butterfly bush), Alex Popovkin (chaffweed), Wikimedia user Anonymous Powered (burnet), Christian Hummert (barrenwort), Derek Ramsey (dogwood), flickr user homeredwardprice (wild lime), Fritz Flohr Reynolds (rattlebox), flickr user Lalithamba (chay root), Jayesh Patil (redstem), George Shramayr (water caltrop), Jim Conrad (contrayerva), Georg Slickers (senjed), Andew Massyn (wild almond), Wikimedia user KENPEI (pigeonberry), J. M. Garg (toothbrush tree), Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle. Service du Patrimoine Naturel (camphorwort).

The diverse order Tetrandria Monogynia included many species, such as (from left to right, top to bottom): king sugar bush (Leucadendron cynaroides, now Protea cynaroides), silver leaf tree (Protea argentea, now Leucadendron argenteum), common buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), common ball flower (Globularia bisnagarica), wild teasel (Dipsacus fullonum), yellow scabiose (Scabiosa alpina, now Cephalaria alpina), common windmill (Allionia incarnata), ear starviolet (Hedyotis auricularia), slender false buttonweed (Spermacoce tenuior), blue field madder (Sherardia arvensis), blue woodruff (Asperula arvensis), Virginia buttonweed (Diodia virginiana), azure bluet (Houstonia caerulea), European bedstraw (Galium rubioides), narrowleaf crosswort (Crucianella angustifolia), common madder (Rubia tinctorum), three-leaved fuchsia (Fuchsia triphylla), Turk’s turban (Siphonanthus indicus, now Clerodendron indicum), lily thorn (Catesbaea spinosa), common jungle flame (Ixora coccinea), metrosexual (Scurrula parasitica), Indian pavetta (Pavetta indica), Indian mangrove (Avicennia officinalis), partridge berry (Mitchella repens), American beautyberry (Callicarpa americana), juniperleaf (Polypremum procumbens), cup leatherleaf (Penaea sarcocolla, now Saltera sarcocolla), American butterfly bush (Buddleja americana), greater plantain (Plantago major), sweet broom (Scoparia dulcis), maidenberry (Rhacoma crossopetalum, now Crossopetalum rhacoma), chaffweed (Centunculus minimus, now Lysimachia minima), great burnet (Sanguisorba officinalis), sorrelvine (Cissus trifoliata), Alpine barrenwort (Epimedium alpinum), flowering dogwood (Cornus florida), wild lime (Fagara pterota, now Zanthoxylum fagara), great wooly Malayan lilac (Tomex tomentosa, now Callicarpa tomentosa), common hoptree (Ptelea trifoliata), rattlebox (Ludwigia alternifolia), chay root (Oldenlandia umbellata), monarch redstem (Ammannia baccifera), water purslane (Isnardia palustris, now Ludwigia palustris), water caltrop (Trapa natans), true contrayerva (Dorstenia contrajerva), senjed (Elaeagnus angustifolia), wild almond (Brabejum stellatifolium), abrojo Colorado (Krameria ixine), pigeonberry (Rivina humilis), toothbrush tree (Salvadora persica), common camphorwort (Camphorosma monspeliaca), common lady’s mantle (Alchemilla vulgaris). Credits to Stan Shebs (sugar bush, windmill, plantain), Wikimedia user Chinasaur (silver leaf tree), Bob Peterson (buttonbush, buttonweed, juniperleaf), Hedwig Storch (ball flower), Muriel Bendel (teasel), Wikimedia user Dinkum (scabiose), flickr user john_amend_all2000 (starviolet), Smithsonian Institute (false buttonweed, fuchsia, maidenberry, sorrelvine, abrojo colorado), Wikimedia user Strobilomyces (field madder), Kurt Süber (woodruff), Rob Duval (bluet), Jan Ševčík (bedstraw), Michael Kesl (crosswort), H. Zell (madder, hoptree, lady’s mantle), Forest & Kim Starr (Turk’s turban), Louise Wolff (jungle flame), Indian Biodiversity Portal (metrosexual), Wikimedia user Vinayaraj (pavetta, Malayan lilac), Wikimedia user Vengolis (Indian mangrove), Wikimedia user Jomegat (partridge berry), John Murphy (beautyberry), Wikimedia user Nanosanchez (leatherleaf), Dick Culbert (butterfly bush), Alex Popovkin (chaffweed), Wikimedia user Anonymous Powered (burnet), Christian Hummert (barrenwort), Derek Ramsey (dogwood), flickr user homeredwardprice (wild lime), Fritz Flohr Reynolds (rattlebox), flickr user Lalithamba (chay root), Jayesh Patil (redstem), George Shramayr (water caltrop), Jim Conrad (contrayerva), Georg Slickers (senjed), Andew Massyn (wild almond), Wikimedia user KENPEI (pigeonberry), J. M. Garg (toothbrush tree), Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle. Service du Patrimoine Naturel (camphorwort).

4.2 Tetrandria digynia (“four males and two females”), four stamens and two pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Aphanes (parsley-piert), Cruzeta (Juba’s bush), Hamamelis (witch-hazel), Cuscuta (dodders), Hypecoum (wingpoppies).

The order Tetrandria Digynia included (from left to right) the common parsley-piert (Aphanes arvensis), the Juba’s bush (Cruzeta hispanica, now Iresine diffusa), the common witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana), the European dodder (Cuscuta europaea), and the prostrate wingpoppy (Hypecoum procumbens). Credits to Wikimedia user Kenraiz (parsley-piert), Dick Culbert (Juba’s bush), Wikimedia user BotBln (witch-hazel), Michael Becker (dodder), Javier Martin (wingpoppy).

The order Tetrandria Digynia included (from left to right) the common parsley-piert (Aphanes arvensis), the Juba’s bush (Cruzeta hispanica, now Iresine diffusa), the common witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana), the European dodder (Cuscuta europaea), and the prostrate wingpoppy (Hypecoum procumbens). Credits to Wikimedia user Kenraiz (parsley-piert), Dick Culbert (Juba’s bush), Wikimedia user BotBln (witch-hazel), Michael Becker (dodder), Javier Martin (wingpoppy).

4.3 Tetrandria tetragynia (“four males and four females”), four stamens and four pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Ilex (hollies), Coldenia (coldenias), Potamogeton (pondweeds), Ruppia (ditchgrasses), Sagina (pearlworts), Tillaea (pygmyweeds).

Linnaeus classified as Tetrandria Tetragynia (from left to right) the European holly (Ilex aquifolium), prostrate coldenia (Coldenia procumbens), claspingleaf pondweed (Potamogeton perfoliatus), ditchgrass (Rupia maritima), matted pearlwort (Sagina procumbens), and water pygmyweed (Tillaea aquatica, now Crassula aquatica). Credits to Hans Hillewaert (holly), J. M. Garg (coldenia), Kristian Peters (pondweed), Yu Ito (ditchgrass), Wikimedia user Density (pearlwort), Hörður Kristinsson (pygmyweed).

Linnaeus classified as Tetrandria Tetragynia (from left to right, top to bottom) the European holly (Ilex aquifolium), prostrate coldenia (Coldenia procumbens), claspingleaf pondweed (Potamogeton perfoliatus), ditchgrass (Rupia maritima), matted pearlwort (Sagina procumbens), and water pygmyweed (Tillaea aquatica, now Crassula aquatica). Credits to Hans Hillewaert (holly), J. M. Garg (coldenia), Kristian Peters (pondweed), Yu Ito (ditchgrass), Wikimedia user Density (pearlwort), Hörður Kristinsson (pygmyweed).

That is all for now, but there is a lot more to show. As one can clearly see, Linnaeus’ knowledge on plants was astonishingly higher than his knowledge on animals, afterall, he was a botanist and not a zoologist.

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References:

Linnaeus, C. (1758) Systema Naturae per regna tria Naturae…

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Friday Fellow: Deep-sea marr

by Piter Kehoma Boll

Looking like some sort of tribal mystic rattle, our newest Friday Fellow comes from the deep waters in the northern hemisphere. Its scientific name is Marrus orthocanna, and I adapted a common name as “deep-sea marr”. I think it sounds cool.

A magic rattle form the deep sea. Photo by Kevin Raskoff

A magic rattle from the deep sea. Photo by Kevin Raskoff.

The deep-sea marr is a siphonophore cnidarian, and as all siphonophores, it is a colonial organism rather than a single individual. It is composed by several specialized organisms (zooids) linked together by a long “stem” and unable to live independently. It is a free-swimming organism, swiming in a pulsative way through the dark deep sea waters.

At the front or upper side of the colony is the pneumatophore, a gas-filled float that is the primordial organism in the colony, the one that originated directly from the embryo. After it, there are several bell-shaped translucent organisms, the nectophores, which are specialized in locomotion, making the colony move by contractions. The last part of the body, the siphosome, contains a series of different zooids, including individuals specialized to capture prey, to digest food and to reproduce.

The deep-sea marr is found mainly in Arctic waters, but sometimes occurs more southwards, down to the Mediterranean Sea. It may grow to several meters in length and its diet most likely includes small crustaceans. It is a weird, but certainly beautiful creature.

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References:

EOL –  Encyclopedia of Life: Marrus orthocanna. Available at: < http://eol.org/pages/1005745 >. Access on April 21, 2016.

Wikipedia. Marrus orthocanna. Available at: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marrus_orthocanna >. Access on April 21, 2016.

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New species: April 3rd week

by Piter Kehoma Boll

Here is a list of species described from April 15 to April 21. It certainly does not include all described species. Most information comes from the journals Mycokeys, Phytokeys, Zookeys, Phytotaxa and Zootaxa.

Obama nungara Carbayo

Obama nungara Carbayo, Álvarez-Presas, Jones & Riutort sp. nov. is a newly discribed South American land planarian that is invasive in Europe.

Plants:

Fungi:

Cnidarians:

Flatworms:

Annelids:

Mollusks:

Nematodes:

Water bears:

Arachnids:

Hexapods:

Ray-finned fishes:

Mammals:

Reptiles:

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Friday Fellow: Gulf fritillary

by Piter Kehoma Boll

I decided that it is time for me to introduce my favorite butterfly here, Agraulis vanillae, commonly known as Gulf fritillary.

The Gulf fritillary is a butterly in the tribe Heliconini and is found in the Americas, from southern United States to northern Argentina. It is easily recognizable by a series of large silvery spots on the underside of the wings. The upper side is orange with black marks.

An adult of Agraulis vanillae. Photo by Piter K. Boll.

An adult of Agraulis vanillae on a head of Zinnia elegans. Photo by Piter K. Boll.*

This orange and black pattern serves as a warning for potential predators, especially birds, about the butterfly’s unpalatability. When disturbed, they produce a complex secretion from abdominal glands that has a strong odor.

As all Heliconini, the Gulf fritillary feeds on species of passionflower in the caterpillar (larval) stage. The adults feed on nectar of several flowers and have been demonstrated to learn to associate a specific color to a better food resource.

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References:

Ross, G. N.; Fales, H. M.; Lloyd, H. A.; Jones, T.; Sokolski, E. A.; Marshall-Batty, K.; Blum, M. S. 2001. Novel chemistry of abdominal defensive glands of nymphalid butterfly Agraulis vanillaeJournal of Chemical Ecology27 (6): 1219-1228. DOI: 10.1023/A:1010372114144

Wikipedia. Gulf fritillary. Available at < https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_fritillary >. Access on April 14, 2016.

Weiss, M. R. 1995. Associative colour learning in a nymphalid butterfly. Ecological Entomology20: 298-301.

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This image is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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New species: April 2nd week

by Piter Kehoma Boll

Here is a list of species described from April 8 to April 14. It certainly does not include all described species. Most information comes from the journals Mycokeys, Phytokeys, Zookeys, Phytotaxa and Zootaxa.

Alburnoides damghani sp. nov. Roudbar et al., 2016, a new fish from Iran.

Alburnoides damghani sp. nov. Roudbar et al., 2016, a new fish from Iran.

Bacteria:

Heterokonts:

Plants:

Fungi:

Cnidarians:

Flatworms:

Annelids:

Mollusks:

Horsehair worms:

Water bears:

Arachnids:

Crustaceans:

Insects:

Ray-finned fishes:

Lissamphibians:

Reptiles:

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The history of Systematics: Animals in Systema Naturae, 1758 (part 4)

by Piter Kehoma Boll

This is the fourth and last part of this series of posts. See here part 1, part 2 and part 3.

I’m presenting here the 6 th and last class of animals: Vermes. It included basically anything that was neither a vertebrate nor an arthropod.

6. Vermes (worms)

Heart with one ventricle and one auricle; cold pus.
Spiracles absent?
Jaws multiple, various.
Penises several in hermaphrodites, androgynous.
Senses: tentacles, head absent (rarely with eyes, no ears and nostrils).
Covering: sometimes calcareous or absent, if not spines.
Support: neither feet nor fins.

Vermes were classified according the form of the body in 5 orders: Intestina, Mollusca, Testacea, Lithophyta and Zoophyta.

6.1 Intestina (internal ones or intestines), simple, naked and without appendages: Gordius (horsehair worms), Furia (the legendary worm), Lumbricus (earthworms and lugworms), Ascaris (roundworms and pinworms), Fasciola (liver flukes), Hirudo (leeches), Myxine (hagfishes) and Teredo (shipworms).

Linnaeus’ heterogeneous order Intestina included (from left to right, top to bottom) the water horsehair worm (Gordius aquaticus), the legendary hell’s fury (Furia infernalis), the common earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris), the giant roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), the sheep liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica), the European medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis), the Atlantic hagfish (Myxine glutinosa), and the naval shipworm (Teredo navalis). Credits to Jiří Duchoň (horsehair worm), Michael Linnenbach (earthworm), Wikimedia user GlebK (leech), Arnstein Rønning (hagfish), Poi Australia [poi-australia.com.au] (shipworm).

Linnaeus’ heterogeneous order Intestina included (from left to right, top to bottom) the water horsehair worm (Gordius aquaticus), the legendary hell’s fury (Furia infernalis), the common earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris), the giant roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), the sheep liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica), the European medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis), the Atlantic hagfish (Myxine glutinosa), and the naval shipworm (Teredo navalis). Credits to Jiří Duchoň (horsehair worm), Michael Linnenbach (earthworm), Wikimedia user GlebK (leech), Arnstein Rønning (hagfish), Poi Australia [poi-australia.com.au] (shipworm).

 6.2 Mollusca (soft ones), simple, naked and with appendages: Limax (land slugs), Doris (doriid sea slugs), Tethys (tethydid sea slugs), Nereis (polychaetes), Aphrodita (sea mice), Lernaea (anchor worms), Priapus (priapulid worms and anemones), Scyllaea (scyllaeid sea slugs), Holothuria (salps and man o’ wars), Triton (possibly some sort of sea slug), Sepia (octopuses, squids and cuttlefishes), Medusa (jellyfishes), Asterias (starfishes), Echinus (sea urchins and sand dollars).

Among the animals that Linnaeus put under Mollusca are (from left to right, top to bottom) the leopard slug (Limax maximus), the warty dorid (Doris verrucosa), the fringed tethydid (Tethys leporina, now Tethys fimbria), the slender ragworm (Nereis pelagica), the sea mouse (Aphrodita aculeata), the common anchor worm (Lernaea cyprinacea), the cactus worm (Priapus humanus, now Priapulus caudatus), the sargassum nudibranch (Scyllaea pelagica), the Portuguese man o’ war (Holothuria physalis, now Physalia physalis), the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), the moon jellyfish (Medusa aurita, now Aurelia aurita), and the European edible sea urchin (Echinus esculentus).Credits to Marina Jacob (slug), Wikimedia user Seascapeza (dorid), Pino Bucca (tethydid), Alexander Semenov (ragworms), Michael Maggs (sea mouse), glsc.usgs.gov (anchor worm), Shunkina Ksenia (cactus worm), Universidad de Olviedo (sargassum nudibranch), Hans Hillewaert (cuttlefish, jellyfish and starfish), and Bengt Littorin (sea urchin).

Among the animals that Linnaeus put under Mollusca are (from left to right, top to bottom) the leopard slug (Limax maximus), the warty dorid (Doris verrucosa), the fringed tethydid (Tethys leporina, now Tethys fimbria), the slender ragworm (Nereis pelagica), the sea mouse (Aphrodita aculeata), the common anchor worm (Lernaea cyprinacea), the cactus worm (Priapus humanus, now Priapulus caudatus), the sargassum nudibranch (Scyllaea pelagica), the Portuguese man o’ war (Holothuria physalis, now Physalia physalis), the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), the moon jellyfish (Medusa aurita, now Aurelia aurita), the common starfish (Asterias rubens), and the European edible sea urchin (Echinus esculentus). Credits to Marina Jacob (slug), Wikimedia user Seascapeza (dorid), Pino Bucca (tethydid), Alexander Semenov (ragworm), Michael Maggs (sea mouse), glsc.usgs.gov (anchor worm), Shunkina Ksenia (cactus worm), Universidad de Olviedo (sargassum nudibranch), Hans Hillewaert (cuttlefish, jellyfish and starfish), and Bengt Littorin (sea urchin).

6.3 Testacea (covered with a shell), simple, covered by a calcareous shelter: Chiton (chitons), Lepas (barnacles), Pholas (piddocks and angelwings), Myes (soft-shell clams), Solen (razor clams), Tellina (tellins), Cardium (cockles), Donax (wedge shells), Venus (venus clams), Spondylus (thorny oysters), Chama (jewel box shells), Arca (ark clams), Ostrea (true oysters), Anomia (saddle oysters), Mytilus (mussels), Pinna (pen shells), Argonauta (paper nautiluses), Nautilus (nautiluses), Conus (cone snails), Cypraea (cowries), Bulla (bubble shells), Voluta (volutes), Buccinum (true whelks), Strombus (true conchs), Murex (murex snails), Trochus (top snails), Turbo (turban snails), Helix (land snails), Nerita (nerites), Haliotis (abalones), Patella (limpets and brachiopods), Dentalium (tusk shells) and Serpula (serpulid worms and worm snails).

Linnaeus’ diverse order Testacea included (from left to right, top to bottom): the West Indian green chiton (Chiton tuberculatus), the smooth gooseneck barnacle (Lepas anatifera), the common piddock (Pholas dactylus), the sand gaper (Myes arenaria, now Mya arenaria), the sheath razor (Solen vagina), the sunrise tellin (Tellina radiata), the great ribbed cockle (Cardium costatum), the abrupt wedge shell (Donax trunculus), the wary venus (Venus verrucosa), the spiny scallop (Spondylus gaederopus), the lazarus jewel box (Chama lazarus), the Noah’s Ark shell (Arca noae), the European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis), the European jingle shell (Anomia ephippium), the blue mussle (Mytilus edulis), the rough penshell (Pinna rudis), the greater argonaut (Argonauta argo), the chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius), the marbled cone (Conus marmoreus), the tiger cowry (Cypraea tigris), the Pacific bubble (Bulla ampulla), the music volute (Voluta musica), the common whelk (Buccinum undatum), the West Indian fighting conch (Strombus pugilis), the caltrop murex (Murex tribulus), maculated top snail (Trochus maculatus), the tapestry turban (Turbo petholatus), the Roman snail (Helix pomatia), the bleeding tooth nerite (Nerita peloronta), Midas ear abalone (Haliotis midae), the Mediterranean limpet (Patella caerulea), the elephant tusk shell (Dentalium elephantinum), the sand worm snail (Serpula arenaria, now Thylacodes arenarius). Credits to James St. John (chiton), Ruben Vera (barnacle), Valter Jacinto (piddock), Oscar Bos [ecomare.nl] (sand gaper), Guido & Philippe Poppe [conchology.be] (razor), femorale.com (tellin, cockle, scallop, ark shell, jingle shell, bubble, fighting conch, nerite, abalone, tusk shell), Hans Hillewaert (wedge shell, venus, nautilus, whelk), Richard Parker (jewel box, marbled cone), Jan Johan ter Poorten (oyster), Wikimedia user Hectonichus (penshell, volute), Bernd Hoffmann (argonaut), Samuel Chow (cowry), Frédéric Ducarme (turban), H. Krisp (Roman snail), Wikimedia user Esculapio (limpet), Matthieu Sontag (worm snail).

Linnaeus’ diverse order Testacea included (from left to right, top to bottom): the West Indian green chiton (Chiton tuberculatus), the smooth gooseneck barnacle (Lepas anatifera), the common piddock (Pholas dactylus), the sand gaper (Myes arenaria, now Mya arenaria), the sheath razor (Solen vagina), the sunrise tellin (Tellina radiata), the great ribbed cockle (Cardium costatum), the abrupt wedge shell (Donax trunculus), the warty venus (Venus verrucosa), the spiny scallop (Spondylus gaederopus), the lazarus jewel box (Chama lazarus), the Noah’s Ark shell (Arca noae), the European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis), the European jingle shell (Anomia ephippium), the blue mussle (Mytilus edulis), the rough penshell (Pinna rudis), the greater argonaut (Argonauta argo), the chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius), the marbled cone (Conus marmoreus), the tiger cowry (Cypraea tigris), the Pacific bubble (Bulla ampulla), the music volute (Voluta musica), the common whelk (Buccinum undatum), the West Indian fighting conch (Strombus pugilis), the caltrop murex (Murex tribulus), the maculated top snail (Trochus maculatus), the tapestry turban (Turbo petholatus), the Roman snail (Helix pomatia), the bleeding tooth nerite (Nerita peloronta), Midas ear abalone (Haliotis midae), the Mediterranean limpet (Patella caerulea), the elephant tusk shell (Dentalium elephantinum), the sand worm snail (Serpula arenaria, now Thylacodes arenarius). Credits to James St. John (chiton), Ruben Vera (barnacle), Valter Jacinto (piddock), Oscar Bos [ecomare.nl] (sand gaper), Guido & Philippe Poppe [conchology.be] (razor), femorale.com (tellin, cockle, scallop, ark shell, jingle shell, bubble, fighting conch, nerite, abalone, tusk shell), Hans Hillewaert (wedge shell, venus, nautilus, whelk), Richard Parker (jewel box, marbled cone), Jan Johan ter Poorten (oyster), Wikimedia user Hectonichus (penshell, volute), Bernd Hoffmann (argonaut), Samuel Chow (cowry), Frédéric Ducarme (turban), H. Krisp (Roman snail), Wikimedia user Esculapio (limpet), Matthieu Sontag (worm snail).

6.4 Lithophyta (stone plants), composite, growing on a solid base: Tubipora (organ pipe corals), Millepora (fire corals), Madrepora (stone corals and Acetabularia algae).

Three species listed by Linnaeus under Lithophyta (from left to right): organ pipe coral (Tubipora musica), sea ginger (Millepora alcicornis), zigzag coral (Madrepora oculata). Credits to Aaron Gustafson (pipe coral), Nick Hobgood (sea ginger), NOAA, U.S.’ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (zigzag coral).

Three species listed by Linnaeus under Lithophyta (from left to right): organ pipe coral (Tubipora musica), sea ginger (Millepora alcicornis), zigzag coral (Madrepora oculata). Credits to Aaron Gustafson (pipe coral), Nick Hobgood (sea ginger), NOAA, U.S.’ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (zigzag coral).

6.5 Zoophyta (animal plants), growing like plants, with animated flowers: Isis (bamboo corals), Gorgonia (sea fans), Alcyonum (soft corals), Tubularia (pipe corals), Eschara (bryozoans and red algae), Corallina (coralline algae), Sertularia (bryozoans and hydrozoans), Hydra (hydras, cilliates and rotifers), Pennatula (sea pens), Taenia (tapeworms), Volvox (volvox algae and amLinebae).

Some species in Linnaeus’ order Zoophyta were (from left to right, top to bottom): the Venus sea fan (Gorgonia flabellum), the dead man’s fingers (Alcyonium digitatum), the oaten pipe hydroid (Tubullaria indivisa), the leafy bryozoan (Eschara foliacea, now Flustra foliacea), the coral weed (Corallina officinalis), the squirrel’s tail (Sertularia argentea), the grooved vorticella (Hydra convallaria, now Vorticella convallaria), the phosphorescent sea pen (Pennatula phosphorea), the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium), and the globe volvox (Volvox globator). Credits to Greg Grimes (sea fan), Bengt Littorin (dead man’s fingers), Bernard Picton (pipe hydroid, sea pen), biopix.com (bryozoan), Lovell and Libby Langstroth (coral weed), National Museums Northern Ireland (squirrel’s tail), D. J. Patterson (vorticella and volvox), Pulich Health Image Library (tapeworm).

Some species in Linnaeus’ order Zoophyta were (from left to right, top to bottom): the Venus sea fan (Gorgonia flabellum), the dead man’s fingers (Alcyonium digitatum), the oaten pipe hydroid (Tubullaria indivisa), the leafy bryozoan (Eschara foliacea, now Flustra foliacea), the coral weed (Corallina officinalis), the squirrel’s tail (Sertularia argentea), the grooved vorticella (Hydra convallaria, now Vorticella convallaria), the phosphorescent sea pen (Pennatula phosphorea), the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium), and the globe volvox (Volvox globator). Credits to Greg Grimes (sea fan), Bengt Littorin (dead man’s fingers), Bernard Picton (pipe hydroid, sea pen), biopix.com (bryozoan), Lovell and Libby Langstroth (coral weed), National Museums Northern Ireland (squirrel’s tail), D. J. Patterson (vorticella and volvox), Pulich Health Image Library (tapeworm).

Linnaeus may have made some mistakes while classifying mammals, birds, amphibians, fishes and insects, but nothing compares to the mess that his class Vermes was. It included animals from many different phyla and even red and green algae! Sometimes the same genus included both animals and plants.

And this concludes our presentation of animals in Linnaeus’ 1758 edition of Systema Naturae.

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References:

Linnaeus. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae…

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Filed under Algae, Systematics, Zoology

Furia infernalis, a legendary parasite

by Piter Kehoma Boll

The year was 1728. The young naturalist Carl Linnaeus was exploring some marshes in the vicinities of Lund, Sweden, in search of botanical specimens. Suddenly he was wounded by something that felt like a sudden dart hitting the skin. Linnaeus deduced that the cause was a small slender worm that buried itself deeply and quickly in the flesh, so that it was impossible to try to extract it. The wound caused such a severe inflammation that his life became endangered. He recovered, of course, but was so deeply impressed by the experience that he gave a name to the supposed animal, Furia infernalis, the fury from Hell, and introduced it in his famous Systema Naturae.

Several naturalists continued to spread the idea of such an animal and several works regarding the creature were published by very respected cientists. The animal was described as being a greyish worm of the thickness of a hair and with black extremities that inhabits marshy places and darts itself upon the exposed parts of the bodies of humans and other animals that happen to be in its reach. The torments caused by the worm after quickly burying itself in the flesh were so excruciating that they throw the victim into a state of madness and wild rage.

The Furia infernalis was supposed to look somewhat like this.

The Furia infernalis was supposed to look somewhat like this.

The idea of the existence of the creature soon became settled in people’s minds. The animal was supposed to live only in eastern Scandinavia and perhaps Russia and the Baltic contries, but did not happen further to the south nor in Norway. Even some medical treatments to cure the infection were published.

An older, wiser and more experienced Linnaeus, many years later, altered his opinion on the creature. He admitted that he possibly was drawn into error regarding the creature’s nature or even existence and considered it to be entirely fictional. However, it was too late. New cases of attacks continued to appear and the worm seemed to be a special danger to reindeer. Accounts regarding entire herds of reindeer being killed by the creature were so frequent that the purchase of animals from Sweden was entirely forbidden during the periods in which the disease was frequently reported.

Despite all the alarm, no one ever was able to present a specimen of the creature in order to validate its existence. The problem with the deer were later discovered to be caused by cestode larvae in the brain, i.e., they were afflicted by neurocysticercosis.

Today Furia infernalis is considered to be an entirely fictional animal belonging to the realm of Cryptozoology. But I wonder what had stung Linnaeus in that marsh three centuries ago.

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References:

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae…

Brooke, A. C. 1827. On the Furia infernalis. Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal3: 39-43.

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Filed under Cryptids, Zoology

Friday Fellow: Sailor’s Eyeball

by Piter Kehoma Boll

Once more our Friday Fellow is hidden among the coral reefs. Its name: Valonia ventricosa, commonly known as sailor’s eyeball.

This green shiny alga is one of the largest single-celled organisms, reaching more than 5 cm in diameter. It is found in tropical seas all around the world, usually associated to coral reefs. It has a spheric to oval shape and a shiny dark to light green surface, making it look like a cut gemstone.

A living jewel of the sea,

A living jewel of the sea. Credits to Philippe Bourjon.

Due to its unusually large size for a unicellular organism, the sailor’s eyeball has been extensively studied regarding its cell wall structure, and it seems to be quite peculiar. The cellulose fibers in its cell wall, which is almost as thick as the cytoplasm, are arranged in a complex structure, including parallel and crossing fibers, as well as some strange fiber swirls with no known function. Its membranes do not seem to have any aquaporines, i.e., pores for letting water go through.

On your next visit to a coral reef, try to find some!

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References:

Eslick, E. M.; Beilby, M.J.; Moon, A. R. 2014. A study of the native cell wall structures of the marine alga Ventricaria ventricosa (Siphonocladales, Chlorophyceae) using atomic force microscopy. Microscopy. DOI: 10.1093/jmicro/dft083

Preston, R. D.; Astbury, W. T. 1937. The structure of the wall of the green alga Valonia ventricosaProceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences122(826): 76-97.

Wikipedia. Valonia ventricosa. Availabe at: < https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valonia_ventricosa >. Access on April 6, 2016.

 

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Filed under Algae, Botany, Friday Fellow