The history of Systematics: Plants in Systema Naturae, 1758 (Part 3)

by Piter Kehoma Boll

This is the third part on Linnaeus’ classification of plants. See here parts 1, 2 and 4.

7. Heptandria (“seven males”)

“Seven husbands in each marriage”, i.e., seven stamens in a hermaphrodite flower.

7.1 Heptandria Monogynia (“seven males and one female”), seven stamens and one pistil in a hermaphrodite flower: Trientalis (wintergreens), Aesculus (buckeyes).

7.2 Heptandria Digynia (“seven males and two females”), seven stamens and one pistil in a hermaphrodite flower: Limeum (limeums).

The chickweed-wintergreen (Trientalis europaea, left) and the horse-chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum, center) were in the order Heptandria Monogynia, while the African limeum (Limeum africanum, right) was in the order Heptandria Digynia. Credits to Beth Loft (wintergreen), wikimedia user Opuntia (horse-chestnut), and Malcolm Manners (limeum).

The chickweed-wintergreen (Trientalis europaea, left) and the horse-chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum, center) were in the order Heptandria Monogynia, while the African limeum (Limeum africanum, right) was in the order Heptandria Digynia. Credits to Beth Loft (wintergreen), wikimedia user Opuntia (horse-chestnut), and Malcolm Manners (limeum).

8. Octandria (“eight males”)

“Eight husbands in each marriage”, i.e., eight stamens in a hermaphrodite flower.

8.1 Octandria Monogynia (“eight males and one female”), eight stamens and one pistil in a hermaphrodite flower: Tropaeloum (nasturtiums), Osbeckia (osbeckias), Rhexia (meadow-beauties), Oenothera (evening-primroses), Gaura (beeblossoms), Epilobium (willowherbs), Combretum (bushwillows), Grislea (one more bushwillow), Allophylus (pigeon’s-eyes), Mimusops (longcherries), Jambolifera (paolay), Amyris (torchwoods), Santalum (sandalwoods), Memecylon (blue foams), Lawsonia (henna tree), Vaccinium (blueberries, cranberries and bilberries), Erica (heathers), Daphne (daphnes), Dirca (leatherwoods), Gnidia (gnidias), Stellera (stelleras), Passerina (sparrowshrubs), Lachnaea (lachnaeas), Baeckea (heathmyrtles).

All the above plants were put by Linnaeus in the order Octandria Monogynia (from left to right, top to bottom): garden nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus), Chinese osbeckia (Osbeckia chinensis), Virginia meadow-beauty (Rhexia virginica), common evening-primrose (Oenothera biennis), biennial beeblossom (Gaura biennis), hairy willowherb (Epilobium hirsutum), orange flame vine (Combretum occidentale, now Combretum fruticosum), Spanish cherry (Mimusops elengi), paolay (Jambolifera pedunculata, now Acronychia pedunculata), sea torchwood (Amyris elemifera), Indian sandalwood (Santalum album), henna tree (Lawsonia inermis), swamp blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum), bell heather (Erica cinerea), February daphne (Daphne mezereum), eastern leatherwood (Dirca palustris), tomentous gnidia (Gnidia tomentosa), ground-jasmine (Stellera chamaejasme), ciliate sparrowshrub (Passerina ciliata, now Struthiola ciliata), shrubby heathmyrtle (Baeckea frutescens). Credits to Franz Xaver (osbeckia), Isidre Blanc (willowherb), Noel Leindekar (orange flame vine), Nyanatusita Bhikkhu (paolay), Smithsonian Institue (torchwood), J. M. Garg (sandalwood), Kurt Stüber (blueberry), Enrico Blasutto (daphne), Fritz Flohr Reynolds (leatherwood), Peter Baker (gnidia), Jan Reurink (ground-jasmine), Missouri Botanical Garden (sparrowshrub), Wibowo Djamitko (heathmyrtle), Wikimedia users Armon (nasturtium), TeunSpaans (evening-primrose), Tu7uh (henna tree), Peigimccann (heather), and flickr user Lalithamba (Spanish cherry).

All the above plants were put by Linnaeus in the order Octandria Monogynia (from left to right, top to bottom): garden nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus), Chinese osbeckia (Osbeckia chinensis), Virginia meadow-beauty (Rhexia virginica), common evening-primrose (Oenothera biennis), biennial beeblossom (Gaura biennis), hairy willowherb (Epilobium hirsutum), orange flame vine (Combretum occidentale, now Combretum fruticosum), Spanish cherry (Mimusops elengi), paolay (Jambolifera pedunculata, now Acronychia pedunculata), sea torchwood (Amyris elemifera), Indian sandalwood (Santalum album), henna tree (Lawsonia inermis), swamp blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum), bell heather (Erica cinerea), February daphne (Daphne mezereum), eastern leatherwood (Dirca palustris), tomentous gnidia (Gnidia tomentosa), ground-jasmine (Stellera chamaejasme), ciliate sparrowshrub (Passerina ciliata, now Struthiola ciliata), shrubby heathmyrtle (Baeckea frutescens). Credits to Franz Xaver (osbeckia), Isidre Blanc (willowherb), Noel Leindekar (orange flame vine), Nyanatusita Bhikkhu (paolay), Smithsonian Institue (torchwood), J. M. Garg (sandalwood), Kurt Stüber (blueberry), Enrico Blasutto (daphne), Fritz Flohr Reynolds (leatherwood), Peter Baker (gnidia), Jan Reurink (ground-jasmine), Missouri Botanical Garden (sparrowshrub), Wibowo Djamitko (heathmyrtle), Wikimedia users Armon (nasturtium), TeunSpaans (evening-primrose), Tu7uh (henna tree), Peigimccann (heather), and flickr user Lalithamba (Spanish cherry).

8.2 Octandria Digynia (“eight males and two females”), eight stamens and two pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Galenia (galenias), Weinmannia (weinmannias), Moehringia (moss sandworts).

These were the only three species in the order Octandria Digynia (from left to right, top to bottom): African galenia (Galenia Africana), pinnate weinmannia (Weinmannia pinnata), common moss-sandwort (Moehringia muscosa). Credits to Wikimedia user Jklaasen (galenia), Stan Shebs (weinmannia).

These were the only three species in the order Octandria Digynia (from left to right): African galenia (Galenia Africana), pinnate weinmannia (Weinmannia pinnata), common moss-sandwort (Moehringia muscosa). Credits to Wikimedia user Jklaasen (galenia), Stan Shebs (weinmannia).

8.3 Octandria Trigynia (“eight males and three females”), eight stamens and three pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Polygonum (knotweeds), Coccoloba (pigeonplums and seagrapes), Paullinia (caruru vines), Cardiospermum (planta-balão), Sapindus (soapberries).

The order Octandria Trigynia included (from left to right) the common knotweed (Polygonum aviculare), the common seagrape (Coccoloba uvifera), the bunchy caruru-vine (Paullinia pinnata), the balloon plant (Cardiospermum halicacabum), and the western soapberry (Sapindus saponaria). Credits to Daniel di Palma (seagrape), Marco Schmidt (caruru-vine), João Medeiros (soapberry), and Wikimedia users Dalgial (knotweed) and KENPEI (balloon plant).

The order Octandria Trigynia included (from left to right) the common knotweed (Polygonum aviculare), the common seagrape (Coccoloba uvifera), the bunchy caruru-vine (Paullinia pinnata), the balloon plant (Cardiospermum halicacabum), and the western soapberry (Sapindus saponaria). Credits to Daniel di Palma (seagrape), Marco Schmidt (caruru-vine), João Medeiros (soapberry), and Wikimedia users Dalgial (knotweed) and KENPEI (balloon plant).

8.4 Octandria Tetragynia (“eight males and four females”), eight stamens and four pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Paris (lover’s knots), Adoxa (moschatel), Elatine (waterworts).

The true lover’s knot (Paris quadrifolia, left), the moschatel (Adoxa moschatellina, center) and the common waterwort (Elatine alsinastrum, right) were in the order Octandria Tetragynia. Credits to Stefan Lefnaer (waterwort) and Wikimedia users Rasbak (lover’s knot) and Pleple2000 (moschatel).

The true lover’s knot (Paris quadrifolia, left), the moschatel (Adoxa moschatellina, center) and the common waterwort (Elatine alsinastrum, right) were in the order Octandria Tetragynia. Credits to Stefan Lefnaer (waterwort) and Wikimedia users Rasbak (lover’s knot) and Pleple2000 (moschatel).

9. Enneandria (“nine males”)

“Nine husbands in each marriage”, i.e., nine stammens in a hermaphrodite flower.

9.1 Enneandria monogynia (“nine males and one female”), nine stamens and one pistil in a hermaphrodite flower: Laurus (laurel, cinnamon, avocado, etc), Tinus (western clethra).

9.2 Enneandria trigynia (“nine males and three females”), nine stamens and three pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Rheum (rhubarbs).

9.3 Enneandria hexagynia (“nine males and six females”), nine stamens and six pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Butomus (flowering rushes).

(From left to right) The bay laurel (Laurus nobilis) and the western clethra (Tinus occidentalis, now Clethra mexicana) were in the order Enneandria Monogynia; the rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) was in the order Enneandria Trigynia; and the flowering rush (Butomus umbellatus) was in the order Enneandria Hexagynia. Credits to Júlio Reis (laurel), Christian Fischer (flowering rush), and Wikimedia user Rasbak (rhubarb).

(From left to right) The bay laurel (Laurus nobilis) and the western clethra (Tinus occidentalis, now Clethra mexicana) were in the order Enneandria Monogynia; the rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) was in the order Enneandria Trigynia; and the flowering rush (Butomus umbellatus) was in the order Enneandria Hexagynia. Credits to Júlio Reis (laurel), Christian Fischer (flowering rush), and Wikimedia user Rasbak (rhubarb).

10. Decandria (“ten males”)

“Ten husbands in each marriage”, i.e., ten stamens in a hermaphrodite flower.

10.1 Decandria Monogynia (“ten males and one female”), ten stamens and one pistil in a hermaphrodite flower: Sophora (necklace pods), Anagyris (oro de risco), Cercis (redbuds), Bauhinia (orchid trees), Hymenaea (courbaril), Parkinsonia (palo verde), Cassia (cassias and sennas), Poinciana (poinciana), Caesalpinia (nickers), Guilandia (moringas), Guaiacum (lignum-vitaes), Cynometra (dog’s mothers), Anacardium (cashew tree), Dictamnus (burning bush), Ruta (rues), Toluifera (Tolu balsam tree), Haematoxylum (logwood), Adenanthera (red lucky tree), Trichilia (trichilias), Melia (chinaberry tree and neem), Zygophyllum (bean capers), Fagonia (fagonbushes), Tribulus (puncture vines), Monotropa (dutchman’s pipe), Jussiaea (water primroses), Melastoma (blue tongues, melastomes, johnnyberries, etc), Kalmia (lambkills), Ledum (wild rosemary), Rhododendrum (rhodies), Andromeda (bog rosemaries, moss heathers), Epigaea (mayflower), Gaultheria (boxberry), Arbutus (strawberry trees), Clethra (summersweet), Pyrola (wintergreens), Samyda (cramantees), Bucida (bullet tree).

The order Decandria Monogynia included (from left to right, top to bottom): common necklace-pod (Sophora tomentosa), oro de risco (Anagyris foetida), Judas tree (Cercis siliquastrum), dwarf white orchid-tree (Bauhinia acuminata), courbaril (Hymenaea courbaril), palo verde (Parkinsonia aculeata), golden shower tree (Cassia fistula), poinciana (Poinciana pulcherrima, now Caesalpinia pulcherrima), sappanwood (Caesalpinia sappan), moringa (Guilandia moringa, now Moringa oleifera), roughbark lignum-vitae (Guaiacum officinale), common dog’s mother (Cynometra cauliflora), cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale), burning bush (Dictamnus albus), common rue (Ruta graveolens), Tolu balsam tree (Toluifera balsamum, now Myroxylon balsamum), logwood (Haematoxylum campechianum), red lucky tree (Adenanthera pavonina), chinaberry tree (Melia azedarach), Syrian beancaper (Zygophyllum fabago), Cretan fagonbush (Fagonia cretica), common puncture vine (Tribulus terrestris), common Dutchman’s pipe (Monotropa hypopitys), Peruvian water primrose (Jussiaea peruviana, now Ludwigia peruviana), Malabar melastome (Melastoma malabathricum), Mountain lambkill (Kalmia latifolia), wild rosemary (Ledum palustre, now Rhododendron tomentosum), rusty-leaved alpenrose (Rhododendrum ferrugineum), bog-rosemary (Andromeda polifolia), mayflower (Epigaea repens), boxberry (Gaultheria procumbens), common strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo), summersweet (Clethra alnifolia), round-leaved wintergreen (Pyrola rotundifolia), true cramantee (Samyda guidonia, now Guarea Guidonia), bullet tree (Bucida buceras). Credits to Forest & Kim Starr (necklace pod, lignum-vitae, water primrose, bullet tree), Luis Nunes Alberto (oro de risco), Jeevan Jose (orchid tree), Stan Shebs (palo verde, poinciana), J. M. Garg (golden shower tree), W.A. Djamtiko (dog’s mother), Radomił Binek (burning bush), Franz Xaver (rue, melastome), Quirico Jimenez (Tolu balsam tree), Shih-Shiuan Kao (chinaberry tree), Ariel Palmon (puncture vine), Bernd Haynold (Dutchman’s pipe), Jason Hollinger (lambkill, boxberry), Muriel Bendel (wild rosemary, alpenrose), Jacob W. Frank (bog-rosemary), H. Zell (summersweet), Erlend Bjørtvedt (wintergreen), João Medeiros (cramantee), flickr user yimhafiz (moringa), and Wikimedia users Kousvet (Judas tree), Conrado (courbaril), Vinayaraj (sappanwood, cashew tree), Reefmonky (logwood), Delonix (red lucky tree), Philmarin (beancaper, strawberry tree) and Llez (fagonbush).

The order Decandria Monogynia included (from left to right, top to bottom): common necklace-pod (Sophora tomentosa), oro de risco (Anagyris foetida), Judas tree (Cercis siliquastrum), dwarf white orchid-tree (Bauhinia acuminata), courbaril (Hymenaea courbaril), palo verde (Parkinsonia aculeata), golden shower tree (Cassia fistula), poinciana (Poinciana pulcherrima, now Caesalpinia pulcherrima), sappanwood (Caesalpinia sappan), moringa (Guilandia moringa, now Moringa oleifera), roughbark lignum-vitae (Guaiacum officinale), common dog’s mother (Cynometra cauliflora), cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale), burning bush (Dictamnus albus), common rue (Ruta graveolens), Tolu balsam tree (Toluifera balsamum, now Myroxylon balsamum), logwood (Haematoxylum campechianum), red lucky tree (Adenanthera pavonina), chinaberry tree (Melia azedarach), Syrian beancaper (Zygophyllum fabago), Cretan fagonbush (Fagonia cretica), common puncture vine (Tribulus terrestris), common Dutchman’s pipe (Monotropa hypopitys), Peruvian water primrose (Jussiaea peruviana, now Ludwigia peruviana), Malabar melastome (Melastoma malabathricum), Mountain lambkill (Kalmia latifolia), wild rosemary (Ledum palustre, now Rhododendron tomentosum), rusty-leaved alpenrose (Rhododendrum ferrugineum), bog-rosemary (Andromeda polifolia), mayflower (Epigaea repens), boxberry (Gaultheria procumbens), common strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo), summersweet (Clethra alnifolia), round-leaved wintergreen (Pyrola rotundifolia), true cramantee (Samyda guidonia, now Guarea Guidonia), bullet tree (Bucida buceras). Credits to Forest & Kim Starr (necklace pod, lignum-vitae, water primrose, bullet tree), Luis Nunes Alberto (oro de risco), Jeevan Jose (orchid tree), Stan Shebs (palo verde, poinciana), J. M. Garg (golden shower tree), W.A. Djamtiko (dog’s mother), Radomił Binek (burning bush), Franz Xaver (rue, melastome), Quirico Jimenez (Tolu balsam tree), Shih-Shiuan Kao (chinaberry tree), Ariel Palmon (puncture vine), Bernd Haynold (Dutchman’s pipe), Jason Hollinger (lambkill, boxberry), Muriel Bendel (wild rosemary, alpenrose), Jacob W. Frank (bog-rosemary), H. Zell (summersweet), Erlend Bjørtvedt (wintergreen), João Medeiros (cramantee), flickr user yimhafiz (moringa), and Wikimedia users Kousvet (Judas tree), Conrado (courbaril), Vinayaraj (sappanwood, cashew tree), Reefmonky (logwood), Delonix (red lucky tree), Philmarin (beancaper, strawberry tree) and Llez (fagonbush).

10.2 Decandria Digynia (“ten males and two females”), ten stamens and two pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Royena (bladdernuts), Hydrangea (hydrangeas), Cunonia (butterspoon tree), Chrysosplenium (golden saxifrages), Saxifraga (saxifrages or rockfoils), Tiarella (foamflowers), Mitella (miterworts), Scleranthus (knawels), Gypsophila (baby’s-breaths), Saponaria (soapworts), Dianthus (carnations, pinks).

Among the species in the order Decandria Digynia, we can cite (from left to right, top to bottom): bladdernut (Royena lucida, now Diospyros whyteana), smooth hydrangea (Hydrangea arborescenes), butterspoon tree (Cunonia capensis), alternate-leaved golden-saxifrage (Chrysosplenium alternifolium), great Alpine rockfoil (Saxifraga cotyledon), heart-leaved foamflower (Tiarella cordifolia), two-leaved miterwort (Mitella diphylla), annual knawel (Scleranthus annuus), Alpine baby’s-breath (Gypsophila repens), common soapwort (Saponaria officinalis), carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus). Credits to Marco Schmidt (bladdernut), Kurt Stüber (butterspoon tree), Krzysztof Ziarnek (golden-saxifrage), Derek Ramsey (foamflower), André Karwath (baby’s-breath), Karel Jakobec (soapwort), and Wikimedia users KENPEI (hydrangea), Ghislain118 (rockfoil), Cbaile19 (miterwort), 4028mdk09 (carnation).

Among the species in the order Decandria Digynia, we can cite (from left to right, top to bottom): bladdernut (Royena lucida, now Diospyros whyteana), smooth hydrangea (Hydrangea arborescenes), butterspoon tree (Cunonia capensis), alternate-leaved golden-saxifrage (Chrysosplenium alternifolium), great Alpine rockfoil (Saxifraga cotyledon), heart-leaved foamflower (Tiarella cordifolia), two-leaved miterwort (Mitella diphylla), annual knawel (Scleranthus annuus), Alpine baby’s-breath (Gypsophila repens), common soapwort (Saponaria officinalis), carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus). Credits to Marco Schmidt (bladdernut), Kurt Stüber (butterspoon tree), Krzysztof Ziarnek (golden-saxifrage), Derek Ramsey (foamflower), André Karwath (baby’s-breath), Karel Jakobec (soapwort), and Wikimedia users KENPEI (hydrangea), Ghislain118 (rockfoil), Cbaile19 (miterwort), 4028mdk09 (carnation).

10.3 Decandria Trigynia (“ten males and three females”), ten stamens and three pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Drypis (mekinyak), Cucubalus (catchflies), Silene (more catchflies), Stellaria (starworts), Arenaria (sandworts), Cherleria (cherleria), Garidella (garidella), Schinus (pepper trees), Malpighia (acerolas), Banisteria (chewstick, amazonvines, hiptage etc), Triopteris (hiptage), Erythroxylon (redwoods).

These 10 species (from left to right, top to bottom) were put by Linnaeus in the order Decandria Trigynia: mekinyak (Drypis spinosa), starry catchfly (Cucubalus stellatus, now Silene stellata), small-flowered catchfly (Silene gallica), wood starwort (Stellaria nemorum), thyme-leaved sandwort (Arenaria serpyllifolia), cherleria (Cherleria sedoides, now Minuartia sedoides), Peruvian pepper tree (Schinus molle), wild acerola (Malpighia glabra), hiptage (both Banisteria benghalensis and Triopteris jamaicensis, now Hiptage benghalensis), swamp redwood (Erythroxylon areolatum, now Erythroxylum areolatum). Credits to C T Johansson (mekinyak), Gideon Pisanty (small-flowered catchfly), Anneli Salo (starwort), Thomas Mathis (cherleria), Juuyoh Tanaka (acerola), Smithsonian Institute (redwood), and Wikimedia users Fornax (sandwort), Appaloosa (pepper tree), Forestowlet (hiptage).

These 10 species (from left to right, top to bottom) were put by Linnaeus in the order Decandria Trigynia: mekinyak (Drypis spinosa), starry catchfly (Cucubalus stellatus, now Silene stellata), small-flowered catchfly (Silene gallica), wood starwort (Stellaria nemorum), thyme-leaved sandwort (Arenaria serpyllifolia), cherleria (Cherleria sedoides, now Minuartia sedoides), Peruvian pepper tree (Schinus molle), wild acerola (Malpighia glabra), hiptage (both Banisteria benghalensis and Triopteris jamaicensis, now Hiptage benghalensis), swamp redwood (Erythroxylon areolatum, now Erythroxylum areolatum). Credits to C T Johansson (mekinyak), Gideon Pisanty (small-flowered catchfly), Anneli Salo (starwort), Thomas Mathis (cherleria), Juuyoh Tanaka (acerola), Smithsonian Institute (redwood), and Wikimedia users Fornax (sandwort), Appaloosa (pepper tree), Forestowlet (hiptage).

10.4 Decandria Pentagynia (“ten males and four females”), ten stamens and five pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Averrhoa (bilimbi and starfruit), Spondias (hog plum trees), Cotyledon (several succulent plants), Sedum (stonecrops and long-livings), Penthorum (ditch stonecrop), Oxalis (woodsorrels), Agrostemma (corncockles), Lychhnis (campinos or catchflies), Cerastium (mouse-ears), Spergula (spurries).

The order Decandria Pentagynia included this 10 species: starfruit tree (Averrhoa carambola), mombin (Spondias mombin), pig’s ear (Cotyledon orbiculata), blue stonecrop (Sedum rupestre), ditch stonecrop (Penthorum sedoides), common woodsorrel (Oxalis acetosella), common corncockle (Agrostemma githago), ragged-robin (Lychnis flos-cuculi), field mouse-ear (Cerastium arvense), corn spurry (Spergula arvensis). Credits to Marco Schmidt (mombin), JJ Harrison (pig’s ear), Isidre Blanc (blue stonecrop), Fritz Flohr Reynolds (ditch stonecrop), Krzysztof Ziarnek (corncockle), Kristian Peters (mouse-ear), and Wikimedia users Pinus (starfruit), Jeffdelonge (woodsorrel), Aiwok (ragged-robin), Rasbak (spurry).

The order Decandria Pentagynia included this 10 species (from left to right, top to bottom): starfruit tree (Averrhoa carambola), mombin (Spondias mombin), pig’s ear (Cotyledon orbiculata), blue stonecrop (Sedum rupestre), ditch stonecrop (Penthorum sedoides), common woodsorrel (Oxalis acetosella), common corncockle (Agrostemma githago), ragged-robin (Lychnis flos-cuculi), field mouse-ear (Cerastium arvense), corn spurry (Spergula arvensis). Credits to Marco Schmidt (mombin), JJ Harrison (pig’s ear), Isidre Blanc (blue stonecrop), Fritz Flohr Reynolds (ditch stonecrop), Krzysztof Ziarnek (corncockle), Kristian Peters (mouse-ear), and Wikimedia users Pinus (starfruit), Jeffdelonge (woodsorrel), Aiwok (ragged-robin), Rasbak (spurry).

10.4 Decandria Decagynia (“ten males and ten females”), ten stamens and ten pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Neurada (neurada), Phytolacca (pokeweeds).

The creeping-neurada (Neurada procumbens, left) and the American pokeweed (Phytolacca americana, right) were among the few species in the order Decandria Decagynia. Credits to Ori-Fragman Sapir (neurada) and Joshua Mayer (pokeweed).

The creeping-neurada (Neurada procumbens, left) and the American pokeweed (Phytolacca americana, right) were among the few species in the order Decandria Decagynia. Credits to Ori-Fragman Sapir (neurada) and Joshua Mayer (pokeweed).

11. Dodecandria (“twelve males”)

“Twelve husbands in each marriage”, i.e., twelve stamens in a hermaphrodite flower.

11.1 Dodecandria Monogynia (“twelve males and one female”), twelve stamens and one pistil in a hermaphrodite flower: Asarum (wild gingers), Gethyllis (kukumakranka), Rhizophora (true mangroves), Garcinia (mangosteens), Styrax (snowballs), Blakea (an unknown species), Crataeva (cratevas), Triumfetta (burbarks), Peganum (Syrian rue), Nitraria (nitre bushes), Portulaca (purslanes), Lythrum (false loosestrifes), Winterana (wild canella).

Linnaeus put these 10 plants in his order Dodecandria Monogynia (from left to right, top to bottom): European wild ginger (Asarum europaeum), red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle), purple mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), common snowball (Styrax officinalis), little silverbell (Halesia carolina), Syrian rue (Peganum harmala), common nitre bush (Nitraria schoberi), common purslane (Portulaca oleracea), purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), wild canella (Winterana canella, now Canella winterana). Credits to Ulf Mehlig (mangrove), Michael Herrmann (mangosteen), Kurt Stüber (Syrian rue), Ana Maria Radu (nitre bush), Ton Rulkens (purslane), Ivar Leidus (purple loosestrife), Smithsonian Insitute (canella) and Wikimedia users Algirdas (wild ginger), Hectonichus (snowball), JMK (silverbell).

Linnaeus put these 10 plants in his order Dodecandria Monogynia (from left to right, top to bottom): European wild ginger (Asarum europaeum), red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle), purple mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), common snowball (Styrax officinalis), little silverbell (Halesia carolina), Syrian rue (Peganum harmala), common nitre bush (Nitraria schoberi), common purslane (Portulaca oleracea), purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), wild canella (Winterana canella, now Canella winterana). Credits to Ulf Mehlig (mangrove), Michael Herrmann (mangosteen), Kurt Stüber (Syrian rue), Ana Maria Radu (nitre bush), Ton Rulkens (purslane), Ivar Leidus (purple loosestrife), Smithsonian Insitute (canella) and Wikimedia users Algirdas (wild ginger), Hectonichus (snowball), JMK (silverbell).

11.2 Dodecandria Digynia (“twelve males and two females”), twelve stamens and two pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Heliocarpus (majagua), Agrimonia (agrimonies).

11.3 Dodecandria Trigynia (“twelve males and three females”), twelve stamens and three pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Reseda (mignonettes), Euphorbia (spurges).

The two upper species, majagua (Heliocarpus americanus) and common agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria) were in the order Dodecandria Digynia, while the lower two, wild mignonette (Reseda lutea) and Canary Island spurge (Euphorbia canariensis), were in the order Dodecandria Trigynia. Credits to Alejandro Bayer Tamayo (majagua), H. Zell (agrimony), Hans Hillewaert (mignonette), Frank Vicentz (spurge).

The two upper species, majagua (Heliocarpus americanus) and common agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria) were in the order Dodecandria Digynia, while the lower two, wild mignonette (Reseda lutea) and Canary Island spurge (Euphorbia canariensis), were in the order Dodecandria Trigynia. Credits to Alejandro Bayer Tamayo (majagua), H. Zell (agrimony), Hans Hillewaert (mignonette), Frank Vicentz (spurge).

11.4 Dodecandria Pentagynia (“twelve males and five females”), twelve stamens and five pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Glinus (sweetjuices).

11.5 Dodecandria Octagynia (“twelve males and eight females”), twelve stamens and eight pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Illicium (star-anise).

11.5 Dodecandria Dodecagynia (“twelve males and twelve females”), twelve stamens and twelve pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Sempervivium (houseleeks).

The lotus sweetjuice (Glinus lotoides, left) was the only species in the order Dodecandria Pentagynia. The Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum, center) was the only species in the order Dodecandria Octagynia. The roof houseleek (Sempervivum tectorum, right) was one of the few species in the order Dodecandria Dodecagynia. Credits to Mark Marathon (sweetjuice), François van der Biest (houseleek) and Wikimedia user KENPEI (star anise).

The lotus sweetjuice (Glinus lotoides, left) was the only species in the order Dodecandria Pentagynia. The Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum, center) was the only species in the order Dodecandria Octagynia. The roof houseleek (Sempervivum tectorum, right) was one of the few species in the order Dodecandria Dodecagynia. Credits to Mark Marathon (sweetjuice), François van der Biest (houseleek) and Wikimedia user KENPEI (star anise).

Ufff…. Will it ever end? Yes, it will, but it will take some time yet… Afterall, plants were Linnaeus’ great passion.

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References:

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae…

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4 Comments

Filed under Botany, Systematics, taxonomy

4 responses to “The history of Systematics: Plants in Systema Naturae, 1758 (Part 3)

  1. Pingback: The history of Systematics: Plants in Systema Naturae, 1758 (Part 1) | Earthling Nature

  2. Pingback: The history of Systematics: Plants in Systema Naturae, 1758 (Part 2) | Earthling Nature

  3. Pingback: The history of Systematics: Plants in Systema Naturae, 1758 (Part 4) | Earthling Nature

  4. Pingback: The history of Systematics: Plants in Systema Naturae, 1758 (Part 5) | Earthling Nature

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