The history of Systematics: Plants in Systema Naturae, 1758 (Part 4)

by Piter Kehoma Boll

Here comes the forth part of the classification of plants proposed by Linnaeus. See here parts 1, 2 and 3.

12. Icosandria (“twenty males”)

“Twenty husbands in each marriage”, i.e., twenty stamens in a hermaphrodite flower:

12.1 Icosandria Monogynia (“twenty males and one female”), twenty stamens and one pistil in a hermaphrodite flower: Cactus (cactuses), Philadephus (mock-oranges), Psidium (guavas), Eugenia (surinam cherry, mango pine, malay apples), Myrtus (myrtles, Brazil cherry, allspice etc), Punica (pomegranate), Amygdalus (almonds and peaches), Prunus (apricots, cherries, plum, etc).

Linnaeus’ order Icosandria Monogynia included (from left to right, top to bottom): wooly nipple cactus (Cactus mammillaris, now Mammillaria mammillaris), sweet mock-orange (Philadelphus coronaries), common guava tree (Psidium guajava), Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora), common myrtle (Myrtus communis), pomegranate tree (Punica granatum), almond tree (Amygdalus communis, now Prunus dulcis), plum tree (Prunus domestica). Credits to Isidre Blanc (mock-orange), Zeynel Cebeci (Surinam cherry), Forest & Kim Starr (myrtle), Mzelle Laure (almond), flickr users Lourdes (cactus), mauroguanandi (guava), and Wikimedia user Rasbak (plum).

Linnaeus’ order Icosandria Monogynia included (from left to right, top to bottom): wooly nipple cactus (Cactus mammillaris, now Mammillaria mammillaris), sweet mock-orange (Philadelphus coronaries), common guava tree (Psidium guajava), Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora), common myrtle (Myrtus communis), pomegranate tree (Punica granatum), almond tree (Amygdalus communis, now Prunus dulcis), plum tree (Prunus domestica). Credits to Isidre Blanc (mock-orange), Zeynel Cebeci (Surinam cherry), Forest & Kim Starr (myrtle), Mzelle Laure (almond), flickr users Lourdes (cactus), mauroguanandi (guava), and Wikimedia user Rasbak (plum).

12.2 Icosandria Digynia (“twenty males and two females”), twenty stamens and two pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Crataegus (hawthorns and rowans).

12.3 Icosandria Trigynia (“twenty males and three females”), twenty stamens and two pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Sorbus (more rowans), Sesuvium (sea-purslane).

The scarlet hawthorn (Crataegus coccinea, left) was in the order Icosandria Digynia, while the European rowan (Sorbus aucuparia, center) and the shoreline purslane (Sesuvium portulacastrum, right) were in the order Icosandria Trigynia. Credits to Eric Guinther (shoreline purslane) and Wikimedia user VoDeTan2 (hawthorn).

The scarlet hawthorn (Crataegus coccinea, left) was in the order Icosandria Digynia, while the European rowan (Sorbus aucuparia, center) and the shoreline purslane (Sesuvium portulacastrum, right) were in the order Icosandria Trigynia. Credits to Eric Guinther (shoreline purslane) and Wikimedia user VoDeTan2 (hawthorn).

12.4 Icosandria Pentagynia (“twenty males and five females”), twenty stamens and five pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Mespilus (medlar, firethorn, shadbush, etc), Pyrus (pears, apples, quince), Tetragonia (tetragonias), Mesembryanthemum (iceplants), Aizoon (immortals), Spiraea (meadowsweets), Dalibarda (dewdrop).

The order Icosandria Pentagynia included (from left to right, top to bottom) the medlar (Mespilus germanica), common pear tree (Pyrus communis), common iceplant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum), Canary Island immortal (Aizoon canariense), common meadowsweet (Spiraea tomentosa), and dewdrop (Dalibarda repens). Credits to H. Zell (medlar), Hans Bernhard (iceplant), Gabrielle Kothe-Heinrich (immortal), Steven G. Johnson (meadowsweet), and Wikimedia user Jomegat (dewdrop).

The order Icosandria Pentagynia included (from left to right, top to bottom) the medlar (Mespilus germanica), common pear tree (Pyrus communis), common iceplant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum), Canary Island immortal (Aizoon canariense), common meadowsweet (Spiraea tomentosa), and dewdrop (Dalibarda repens). Credits to H. Zell (medlar), Hans Bernhard (iceplant), Gabrielle Kothe-Heinrich (immortal), Steven G. Johnson (meadowsweet), and Wikimedia user Jomegat (dewdrop).

12.5 Icosandria Polygynia (“twenty males and many females”), twenty stamens and many pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Rosa (roses), Rubus (blackberries and raspberries), Fragaria (strawberries), Potentilla (cinquefoils), Tormentilla (more cinquefoils), Geum (avens), Dryas (dryads), Comarum (marsh cinquefoil), Calycanthus (sweetbrush).

The order Icosandria Polygynia included (from left to right, top to bottom) the French rose (Rosa gallica), red raspberry (Rubus idaeus), wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca), sulphur cinquefoil (Potentilla recta), European cinquefoil (Tormentilla reptans, now Potentilla reptans), wood avens (Geum urbanum), white dryad (Dryas octopetala), marsh cinquefoil (Comarum palustre), and sweetbrush (Calycanthus floridus). Credits to Bogdan Giuşcă (rose), Sander van der Molen (strawberry), Enrico Blasutto (European cinquefoil), Randy A. Nonemacher (avens), Isidre Blanc (dryad), and Wikimedia users Wo st 01 (raspberry), AnRo0002 (sulphur cinquefoil), Beentree (marsh cinquefoil), Phyzome (sweetbrush).

The order Icosandria Polygynia included (from left to right, top to bottom) the French rose (Rosa gallica), red raspberry (Rubus idaeus), wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca), sulphur cinquefoil (Potentilla recta), European cinquefoil (Tormentilla reptans, now Potentilla reptans), wood avens (Geum urbanum), white dryad (Dryas octopetala), marsh cinquefoil (Comarum palustre), and sweetbrush (Calycanthus floridus). Credits to Bogdan Giuşcă (rose), Sander van der Molen (strawberry), Enrico Blasutto (European cinquefoil), Randy A. Nonemacher (avens), Isidre Blanc (dryad), and Wikimedia users Wo st 01 (raspberry), AnRo0002 (sulphur cinquefoil), Beentree (marsh cinquefoil), Phyzome (sweetbrush).

13. Polyandria (“many males”)

“Many husbands in each marriage”, i.e., many stamens in a hermaphrodite flower.

13.1 Polyandria Monogynia (“many males and one female”), many stamens and one pistil in a hermaphrodite flower: Lecythis (monkey pots), Marcgravia (monkey-paws vine), Morisonia (morisonias), Capparis (capers), Actaea (bugbanes), Bocconia (tree poppy), Sanguinaria (bloodroot), Podophyllum (mayapple), Chelidonium (celandines), Papaver (poppies), Argemone (prickly poppies), Cambogia (gamboge), Muntingia (calabur tree), Sarracenia (trumpet pitchers), Nymphaea (water lilies), Bixa (achiote), Sloanea (carrabeens), Prockia (guasimilla), Laetia (laetia), Seguieria (forest lemon), Mammea (mammee and fish poison tree), Grias (anchovy pear), Ochna (ochnas), Chrysobalanus (coco plum), Calophyllum (tamanus), Tilia (basswoods), Microcos (shiral), Elaeocarpus (Ceylon olive), Elima (an unknown species), Mesua (Sri Lankan ironwood), Vateria (white dammar), Lagerstroemia (crape myrtle), Thea (tea), Caryophyllus (clove), Mentzelia (blazing stars), Plinia (grapetrees), Cistus (cistuses), Corchorus (jutes).

The diverse order Polyandria Monogynia included (from left to right, top to bottom): common monkey pot (Lecythis ollaria), common monkey-paws vine (Marcgravia umbellata), common caper (Capparis spinosa), baneberry (Actaea spicata), tree poppy (Bocconia frutescens), bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis), mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum), greater celandine (Chelidonium majus), opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), Mexican prickly poppy (Argemone Mexicana), calabur tree (Muntingia calabura), purple pitcher (Sarracenia purpurea), white water-lily (Nymphaea alba), achiote (Bixa orellana), mammee (Mammea Americana), coco plum (Chrysobalanus icaco), tamanu (Calophyllum inophyllum), American basswood (Tilia americana), Ceylon olive (Elaeocarpus serratus), Sri Lankan ironwood (Mesua ferrea), white dammar (Vateria indica), crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica), tea (Thea sinensis, now Camellia sinensis), clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus, now Syzygium aromaticum), narrow-leaved cistus (Cistus monspeliensis), common jute (Corchorus olitorius). Credits to Pau Cabot (caper), H. Zell (baneberry), Forest & Kim Starr (tree poppy, coco plum, tamanu), Nicholas A. Tonelli (bloodroot), Hedwig Storch (mayapple, water lily), Angie Harms (poppy), Bruno Navez (prickly poppy), Denis Conrado (achiote), Fritz Flohr Reynolds (basswood), Lionel Allorge (crape myrtle), Meneerke Bloem (clove), Joaquim Alves Gaspar (cistus), and Wikimedia users Nvivas (monkey pot), Marcoarbo (mammee), Vinayaraj (Ceylon olive, Sri Lankan ironwood), Forestowlet (white dammar), apple2000 (jute).

The diverse order Polyandria Monogynia included (from left to right, top to bottom): common monkey pot (Lecythis ollaria), common monkey-paws vine (Marcgravia umbellata), common caper (Capparis spinosa), baneberry (Actaea spicata), tree poppy (Bocconia frutescens), bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis), mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum), greater celandine (Chelidonium majus), opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), Mexican prickly poppy (Argemone Mexicana), calabur tree (Muntingia calabura), purple pitcher (Sarracenia purpurea), white water-lily (Nymphaea alba), achiote (Bixa orellana), mammee (Mammea Americana), coco plum (Chrysobalanus icaco), tamanu (Calophyllum inophyllum), American basswood (Tilia americana), Ceylon olive (Elaeocarpus serratus), Sri Lankan ironwood (Mesua ferrea), white dammar (Vateria indica), crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica), tea (Thea sinensis, now Camellia sinensis), clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus, now Syzygium aromaticum), narrow-leaved cistus (Cistus monspeliensis), common jute (Corchorus olitorius). Credits to Pau Cabot (caper), H. Zell (baneberry), Forest & Kim Starr (tree poppy, coco plum, tamanu), Nicholas A. Tonelli (bloodroot), Hedwig Storch (mayapple, water lily), Angie Harms (poppy), Bruno Navez (prickly poppy), Denis Conrado (achiote), Fritz Flohr Reynolds (basswood), Lionel Allorge (crape myrtle), Meneerke Bloem (clove), Joaquim Alves Gaspar (cistus), and Wikimedia users Nvivas (monkey pot), Marcoarbo (mammee), Vinayaraj (Ceylon olive, Sri Lankan ironwood), Forestowlet (white dammar), apple2000 (jute).

13.2 Polyandria Digynia (“many males and two females”), many stamens and two pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Paeonia (peônia), Curatella (curatellas), Calligonum (orta).

13.3 Polyandria Trigynia (“many males and three females”), many stamens and three pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Delphinium (larkspurs), Aconitum (wolfsbanes).

The common peony (Paeonia officinalis, left) and the orta (Calligonum polygonoides, center-left) were in the order Polyandria Digynia, while the candle larkspur (Delphinium elatum, center-right) and the northern wolfsbane (Aconitum lycoctonum, right) were in the order Polyandria Trigynia. Credits to H. Zell (peony), Antti Bilund (wolfsbane) and Wikimedia users LRBurdak (orta) and Bff (larkspur).

The common peony (Paeonia officinalis, left) and the orta (Calligonum polygonoides, center-left) were in the order Polyandria Digynia, while the candle larkspur (Delphinium elatum, center-right) and the northern wolfsbane (Aconitum lycoctonum, right) were in the order Polyandria Trigynia. Credits to H. Zell (peony), Antti Bilund (wolfsbane) and Wikimedia users LRBurdak (orta) and Bff (larkspur).

13.4 Polyandria Tetragynia (“many males and four females”), many stamens and four pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Tetracera (hornvines).

13.5 Polyandria Pentagynia (“many males and five females”), many stamens and five pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Aquilegia (granny’s bonnet), Nigella (love-in-a-mists), Reaumuria (reaumurias).

13.6 Polyndria Hexagynia (“many males and six females”), many stamens and six pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Stratiotes (water soldier).

The common hornvine (Tetracera volubilis, left) was the only species in the order Polyandria Tetragynia; the common granny’s bonnet (Aquilegia vulgaris, center-left) and the love-in-a-mist (Nigella damascena, center-right) were in the order Polyandria Pentagynia; and the water soldier (Stratiotes aloides, right) was the only species in the order Polyandria Hexagynia. Credits to Daniel H. Janzen (hornvine), Isidre Blanc (granny’s bonnet), Christian Fischer (water soldier).

The common hornvine (Tetracera volubilis, left) was the only species in the order Polyandria Tetragynia; the common granny’s bonnet (Aquilegia vulgaris, center-left) and the love-in-a-mist (Nigella damascena, center-right) were in the order Polyandria Pentagynia; and the water soldier (Stratiotes aloides, right) was the only species in the order Polyandria Hexagynia. Credits to Daniel H. Janzen (hornvine), Isidre Blanc (granny’s bonnet), Christian Fischer (water soldier).

13.7 Polyandria Polygynia (“many males and many females”), many stamens and many pistils in a hermaphrodite flower: Dillenia (elephant apple), Liriodendron (tulip tree), Magnolia (magnolias), Michelia (champak), Uvaria (uvaria and kadsura), Annona (sugar apples), Anemone (anemones), Atragene (clematises and anemones), Clematis (clematises), Thalictrum (meadow-rues), Adonis (adonises), Ranunculus (buttercups and water crowfoots), Trollius (globeflowers), Isopyrum (isopyrums), Helleborus (hellebores), Caltha (marsh-marigold), Hydrastis (goldenseal).

The heterogeneous order Polyandria Polygynia included (from left to right, top to bottom): elephant apple (Dillenia indica), tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera), southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), champak (Michelia champacca, now Magnolia champaca), custard apple (Annona squamosal), poppy anemone (Anemone coronaria), Alpine clematis (Atragene alpina, now Clematis alpina), purple clematis (Clematis viticella), early meadow-rue (Thalictrum dioicum), pheasant’s eye (Adonis annua), Persian buttercup (Ranunculus asiaticus), European globeflower (Trollius europaeus), common isopyrum (Isopyrum thalictroides), black hellebore (Helleborus niger), marsh-marigold (Caltha palustris), goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis). Credits to Shamim Munshi (elephant apple), Bruce Marlin (tulip tree), Anna Anichkova (magnolia), Denis Conrado (champak), Meneerke Bloem (custard apple), Zachi Evenor (anemone, buttercup), Enrico Blasutto (Alpine clematis), Frank Liebig (purple clematis), Alberto Salguero (pheasant’s eye), H. Zell (globeflower), Isidre Blanc (marsh-marigold), Ryan Hagerty (goldenseal), and Wikimedia users Cbaile19 (meadow-rue) and Wildfeuer (hellebore).

The heterogeneous order Polyandria Polygynia included (from left to right, top to bottom): elephant apple (Dillenia indica), tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera), southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), champak (Michelia champacca, now Magnolia champaca), custard apple (Annona squamosal), poppy anemone (Anemone coronaria), Alpine clematis (Atragene alpina, now Clematis alpina), purple clematis (Clematis viticella), early meadow-rue (Thalictrum dioicum), pheasant’s eye (Adonis annua), Persian buttercup (Ranunculus asiaticus), European globeflower (Trollius europaeus), common isopyrum (Isopyrum thalictroides), black hellebore (Helleborus niger), marsh-marigold (Caltha palustris), goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis). Credits to Shamim Munshi (elephant apple), Bruce Marlin (tulip tree), Anna Anichkova (magnolia), Denis Conrado (champak), Meneerke Bloem (custard apple), Zachi Evenor (anemone, buttercup), Enrico Blasutto (Alpine clematis), Frank Liebig (purple clematis), Alberto Salguero (pheasant’s eye), H. Zell (globeflower), Isidre Blanc (marsh-marigold), Ryan Hagerty (goldenseal), and Wikimedia users Cbaile19 (meadow-rue) and Wildfeuer (hellebore).

So we conclude the first load of plants. From the next post on, we will enter in the world of the less regular flowers.

– – –

References:

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae…

– – –

Creative Commons License
All images are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Advertisements

4 Comments

Filed under Botany, Systematics, taxonomy

4 responses to “The history of Systematics: Plants in Systema Naturae, 1758 (Part 4)

  1. Pingback: The history of Systematics: Plants in Systema Naturae, 1758 (Part 1) | Earthling Nature

  2. Pingback: The history of Systematics: Plants in Systema Naturae, 1758 (Part 2) | Earthling Nature

  3. Pingback: The history of Systematics: Plants in Systema Naturae, 1758 (Part 3) | Earthling Nature

  4. Pingback: The history of Systematics: Plants in Systema Naturae, 1758 (Part 5) | Earthling Nature

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s