Monthly Archives: October 2016

Friday Fellow: Sun Beetle

ResearchBlogging.orgby Piter Kehoma Boll

Who says beetles cannot be cute? Take a look at those guys:

pachnoda_marginata

They are eating a piece of banana. Photo by Wikimedia user Evanherk.*

These little fellows are beetles of the species Pachnoda marginata, commonly known as sun beetle or taxi cab beetle. Native from Africa, they reach up to 30 mm as adults and 60 mm as larvae and are one of the most common beetles raised as pets.

pachnoda_marginata_peregrina

An adult with the wings exposed, about to fly. Photo by Wikimedia user Drägüs.*

The sun beetle has nine subspecies, each with a particular color pattern. The most well known subspecies is Pachnoda marginata peregrina and is the one shown in the photos above.

Since the sun beetle is easy to keep in the lab, it has been eventually used in scientific studies, especially some related to the neurology of the olphactory receptors.

– – –

References:

Larsson, M. C., Stensmyr, M.. C., Bice, S. B., & Hansson, B. S. (2003). Attractiveness of Fruit and Flower Odorants Detected by Olfactory Receptor Neurons in the Fruit Chafer Pachnoda marginata Journal of Chemical Ecology, 29 (5), 1253-1268 DOI: 10.1023/A:1023893926038

Stensmyr, Marcus C., Larsson, Mattias C., Bice, Shannon, & Hansson, Bill S. (2001). Detection of fruit- and flower-emitted volatiles by olfactory receptor neurons in the polyphagous fruit chafer Pachnoda marginata (Coleoptera: Cetoniinae) Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 187 (7), 509-519

Wikipedia. Pachnoda marginata. Availabe at: < https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pachnoda_marginata >. Access on September 8, 2016.

– – –

*Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Leave a comment

Filed under Entomology, Friday Fellow, Zoology

Friday Fellow: Witch’s Butter

ResearchBlogging.orgby Piter Kehoma Boll

Last week I introduced a cyanobacteria that reminds me of my childhood and that is commonly known as witch’s jelly or witch’s butter. But witch’s butter is also the common name of fungus, so I thought it would be interesting to introduce it today. Its scientific name is Tremella mesenterica.

tremella_mesenterica

Witch’s butter on dead wood. Photo by Jerzy Opiała.*

Also known as yellow brain, yellow trembler or golden jelly fungus, the witch’s butter is found in all continents and appears as a lobed and curly jelly material growing on dead wood and may be mistaken as a saprobic species, a wood decomposer, but that’s not true. The witch’s butter is actually a parasite of saprobic fungi of the genus Peniophora, such as the rosy crust Peniophora incarnata.

The witch’s butter is edible, but usually considered tasteless. Some preliminary results indicate that it may reduce blood glucose levels, therefore having the potential do be developed into a hypoglycemic agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

– – –

References:

Lo, H., Tsai, F., Wasser, S., Yang, J., & Huang, B. (2006). Effects of ingested fruiting bodies, submerged culture biomass, and acidic polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan of Tremella mesenterica Retz.:Fr. on glycemic responses in normal and diabetic rats Life Sciences, 78 (17), 1957-1966 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2005.08.033

Wikipedia. Tremella mesenterica. Available at <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tremella_mesenterica&gt;. Access on September 22, 2016.

– – –

*Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Leave a comment

Filed under Friday Fellow, Fungi

New Species: October 11 to 20

by Piter Kehoma Boll

Here is a list of species described from October 11 to October 20. It certainly does not include all described species. Most information comes from the journals Mycokeys, Phytokeys, Zookeys, Phytotaxa, Zootaxa, International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, and Systematic and Applied Microbiology, as well as journals restricted to certain taxa.

habronattus-arcalorus

Habronattus arcalorus is a new jumping spider described in the past 10 days.

SARs

Plants

Fungi

Sponges

Cnidarians

Flatworms

Nematodes

Water bears

Arachnids

Myriapods

Crustaceans

Insects

Echinoderms

Cartilaginious fishes

Ray-finned fishes

Leave a comment

Filed under Systematics, taxonomy

Friday Fellow: Witch’s Jelly

ResearchBlogging.orgby Piter Kehoma Boll

I wonder how many people can say they have a bacterium that reminds them of their childhood. Well, at least I can say that I have.

When I was a boy and started to know about the amazing world of living beings that fill our planet, I spent most of my time outdoors looking at every small corner of the backyard and nearby woods in search for interesting lifeforms. And one that always caught my attention was a strange brownish green gelatinous mass that appeared on the ground in the rainy season.

nostoc_commune

Have you ever found something like that on the ground? Photo by flickr user gailhampshire.*

At first I thought it was some species of green alga, but was unable to identify the species. Many years later I finally found out what it is, a colony of cyanobacteria called Nostoc commune and commonly known as star jelly, witch’s butter, witch’s jelly and many other names. It is found worldwide, from the tropics to the polar regions.

As in other cyanobacteria, the witch’s jelly is formed by a colony of unicellular organisms connected in chains. Those are embedded in a gelatinous matrix of polysaccharides that gives the colony its jelly appearance.

nostoc_commune

Chains of Nostoc commune in the matrix of polysaccharides seen under the miscroscope. Photo by Kristian Peters.**

During dry periods, the colonies of witch’s jelly dessiccate and become an inconspicuous thin layer on the ground. They may remain in this state for decades, maybe centuries, until the ideal conditions come back.

In some places, especially Southeast Asia, the witch’s jelly is consumed as food, being a traditional food in the Chinese Lunar New Year.

– – –

References:

Lipman, C. (1941). The Successful Revival of Nostoc commune from a Herbarium Specimen Eighty- Seven Years Old Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 68 (9) DOI: 10.2307/2481755

Tamaru, Y., Takani, Y., Yoshida, T., & Sakamoto, T. (2005). Crucial Role of Extracellular Polysaccharides in Desiccation and Freezing Tolerance in the Terrestrial Cyanobacterium Nostoc commune Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71 (11), 7327-7333 DOI: 10.1128/AEM.71.11.7327-7333.2005

Wikipedia. Nostoc commune. Available at: < https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nostoc_commune >. Access on September 19, 2016.

– – –

*Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic License.

**Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Leave a comment

Filed under Algae, Bacteria, Friday Fellow

New Species: October 1 to 10

Here is a list of species described from October 1 to October 10. It certainly does not include all described species. Most information comes from the journals Mycokeys, Phytokeys, Zookeys, Phytotaxa, Zootaxa, International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, and Systematic and Applied Microbiology, as well as journals restricted to certain taxa.

rhodnius_marabaensis

Rhodnius marabaensis is a new assassin bug described in the past 10 days.

Archaeans

Bacteria

SARs

Plants

Fungi

Cnidarians

Flatworms

Annelids

Mollusks

Arachnids

Crustaceans

Insects

Echinoderms

Ray-finned fishes

Reptiles

Leave a comment

Filed under Systematics, taxonomy

Friday Fellow: Flounder Glugea

by Piter Kehoma Boll

While looking for flatfish you may eventually find one with some grotesque growth on the body, like the one in the picture below:

glugea_stephani_xenoma

A xenoma caused by Glugea stephani on a flatfish Limanda limanda. Photo by Hans Hillewaert.*

This sort of tumor is called xenoma and, in flatfish, is caused by a microscopical and parasitic fungus named Glugea stephani, or the flounder glugea.

The flounder glugea is part of a group of fungi called Microsporidia that until recently were classified as protists. They are unicellular and parasite other organisms, especially crustaceans and fish.

Once inside a flatfish, the flounder glugea enters an intestinal cell and starts to develop. They induce the host cell to increase in size and may give rise to the xenomas, which are the most extreme stage in the development of the disease. The proliferating and active stage of the glugea are free in the cytoplasm of the host cell, but they may change into a spore-like form called sporoblast that remains inside a vacuole.

glugea_stephani

Image of electron microscopy of an intestinal cell of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) infected by flounder glugea (Glugea stephani). The S indicates sporoblasts inside the vacuole (SV) and the P the proliferating organisms inside the host cytoplasm (H). Image extracted from Takvorian & Cali (1983).

Fortunately most infections are mild and do not compromise the fish health, at least not very much…

– – –

References:

Takvorian, P. M.; Cali, A. (1983). Appendages associated with Glugea stephani, a microscporidian found in flounder. Journal of Protozoology, 30(2): 251-256.

Wikipedia. Xenoma. Available at: < https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xenoma >. Access on September 17, 2016.

– – –

*Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Leave a comment

Filed under Disease, Fish, Friday Fellow, Fungi