The history of Systematics: Plants in Systema Naturae, 1758 (Part 5)

by Piter Kehoma Boll

After taking four posts (you can read them here: 1, 2, 3, 4) to present all regular hermaphroditic flowers in Linnaeus’ system, it’s time to move to irregular hermaphroditic flowers (which will continue in post 6). Here I’ll present you two classes characterized by having stamens of two different sizes.

14. Didynamia (“two forces”)

“Four husbands, two of them longer and two of them shorter”, i.e., two longer stamens and two shorter stamens in a hermaphroditic flower.

14.1 Didynamia Gymnospermia (“two forces, naked seeds”), two longer stamens (and two shorter ones) and exposed seeds without a surrounding fruit: Ajuga (bugleweeds), Teucrium (germanders), Satureja (savories), Thymbra (Mediterranean thymes), Hyssopus (hyssops), Nepeta (catnips), Lavandula (lavenders), Betonica (betonies), Sideritis (ironworts), Mentha (mints), Glechoma (ground ivies), Lamium (dead nettles), Orvala (more dead nettles), Galeopsis (hempnettles), Stachys (woundworts), Ballota (horehounds), Marrubium (more horehounds), Leonurus (lion’s tails), Phlomis (Jerusalem sage), Moluccella (bells-of-Ireland), Clinopodium (wild basils), Thymus (thymes), Origanum (oreganos), Melissa (balms), Dracocephalum (dragonheads), Horminum (dragonmouth), Melittis (bastard balm), Ocimum (basils), Trichostema (bluecurls), Scutellaria (skullcaps), Prunella (self-heals), Prasium (white hedge-nettle), Phryma (lopseed).

1758linnaeus_didynamia_gymnospermia

These 32 species were classified by Linnaeus as Didynamia Gymnospermia (from left to right, top to bottom): common bugleweed (Ajuga reptans), wall germander (Teucrium chamaedrys), winter savory (Satureja montana), spicate Mediterranean thyme (Thymbra spicata), herb hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), true catnip (Nepeta cataria), French lavender (Lavandula stoechas), common betony (Betonica officinalis, now Stachys officinalis), Syrian ironwort (Sideritis syriaca), spear mint (Mentha spicata), common ground-ivy (Glechoma hederacea), white dead-nettle (Lamium album), common hempnettle (Galeopsis tetrahit), hedge woundwort (Stachys sylvatica), black horehound (Ballota nigra), common horehound (Marrubium vulgare), motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca), common Jerusalem sage (Phlomis fruticosa), common-bells-of-Ireland (Moluccella laevis), common wild-basil (Clinopodium vulgare), common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), common oregano (Origanum vulgare), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), Moldavian dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica), dragonmouth (Horminum pyrenaicum), bastard balm (Melittis melissophyllum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), forked blue curls (Trichostema dichotomum), blue skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora), common self-heal (Prunella vulgaris), white hedge-nettle (Prasium majus), lopseed (Phryma leptostachya). Credits to H. Zell (bugleweed, hyssop, betony, mint, dead nettle), Bernd Haynold (germander, dragonmouth), Agnieszka Kwiecień (savory), Gideon Pisanty (Mediterranean thyme, lemon balm), Hans Hillewaert (lavender), C T Johansson (ironwort), Kristian Peters (ground ivy), Ivar Leidus (woundwort, self-heal), Olivier Pichard (black horehound), Eugene Zelenko (common horehound), Karel Jakubec (motherwort), Peter A. Mansfeld (Jerusalem sage), Muriel Bendel (wild basil), Henry Brisse (thyme), Frank Vicentz (oregano), Karen Hine (dragonhead), Jacopo Werther (blue curls), Rolf Engstrand (skullcap), Zeynel Cebeci (white hedge-nettle), and Wikimedia users KENPEI (catnip), BerndH (hempnettle, bastard balm), HelloMojo (bells-of-Ireland), Wildfeuer (basil) and Dalgial (lopseed).

14.2 Didynamia Angiospermia (“two forces, enclosed seeds”), two longer stamens (and two shorter ones) and seeds enclosed in a fruit: Bartsia (velvetbells), Rhinanthus (rattles), Euphrasia (eyebrights), Melampyrum (cow wheats), Lathraea (toothworts), Schwalbea (chaffseed), Tozzia (tozzias), Pedicularis (louseworts), Gerardia (gerardias), Chelone (turtleheads), Gesneria (gesnerias), Antirrhinum (snapdragons), Cymbaria (cymbarias), Craniolaria (craniolarias), Martynia (cat’s claw), Torenia (wishbone flowers), Besleria (beslerias), Scrophularia (figworts), Celsia (celsia), Digitalis (foxgloves), Bignonia (crossvines), Citharexylum (fiddlewoods), Halleria (tree fuchsia), Crescentia (calabash tree), Gmelina (gmelinas), Petrea (sandpaper vines), Lantana (lantanas), Cornutia (cornutias), Loeselia (loeselias), Capraria (goatweeds), Selago (selages), Hebenstretia (hebenstretias), Erinus (fairy foxgloves), Buchnera (buchneras), Browallia (browallias), Linnaea (twinflower), Sibthorpia (sibthorpia), Limosella (mudworts), Stemodia (twintips), Aeginetia (forest ghost flower), Obolaria (obolarias), Orobanche (broomrapes), Dodartia (dodartias), Lippia (lippias), Sesamum (sesames), Mimulus (monkeyflowers), Ruellia (ruellias), Barleria (Philippine violets), Duranta (dewdrops), Ovieda (ovieda), Ellisia (ellisia), Volkameria (glory bowers), Clerodendrum (more glory bowers), Vitex (chastetree), Bontia (wild olive), Columnea (flying goldfish plants), Acanthus (bear’s breeches), Pedalium (pedalium), Melianthus (honeyflowers).

1758linnaeus_didynamia_angiospermia

The order Didynamia Angiospermia included these plants (from left to right, top to bottom): common velvetbells (Bartsia alpina), field cow-wheat (Melampyrum arvense), common toothwort (Lathraea squamaria), American chaffseed (Schwalbea americana), common lousewort (Pedicularis sylvatica), white turtlehead (Chelone glabra), garden snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus), cat’s claw (Martynia annua), common figwort (Scrophularia nodosa), common foxglove (Digitalis purpurea), common crossvine (Bignonia capreolata), tree fuchsia (Halleria lucida), Calabash tree (Crescentia cujete), West Indian lantana (Lantana camara), common goatweed (Capraria biflora), Alpine balsam (Erinus alpinus), twinflower (Linnaea borealis), water mudwort (Limosella aquática), seaside twintip (Stemodia marítima), forest ghost flower (Aeginetia indica), branched broomrape (Orobanche ramosa), common sesame (Sesamum indicum), square-stemmed monkeyflower (Mimulus ringens), minnieroot (Ruellia tuberosa), crested Philippine violet (Barleria cristata), golden dewdrop (Duranta erecta), common glory bower (Volkameria inermis), Hill glory bower (Clerodendrum infortunatum), common chastetree (Vitex agnus-castus), wild olive (Bontia daphnoides), common bear’s breeches (Acanthus mollis), pedalium (Pedalium murex), giant honeyflower (Melianthus major). Credits to Jörg Hempel (velvetbells, toothwort), Hans Hillewaert (cow wheat), H. Zell (turtlehead, chastetree), Michael Apel (snapdragon), Jean François Gaffard (figwort), Melissa McMasters (crossvine), Stan Shebs (tree fuchsia, honeyflower), Franz Xaver (lantana, sesame, bear’s breeches), Scott Zona (goatweed), François Van Der Biest (Apline balsam), Paul Chapman (twinflower), Christian Fischer (mudwort), Alex Popovkin (twintip), C T Johansson (forest ghost flower), Javier Martin (broomrape), Jason Hollinger (monkeyflower), Varun Pabrai (minnieroot), Forest & Kim Starr (common glory bower), D. Eickhoff (wild olive), Marco Schmidt (pedalium), and Wikimedia users Orchi (lousewort), Vinayaraj (cat’s claw, hill glory bower), Yann (foxglove), Jamesbamba (calabash tree), Vengolis (Philippine violet) and Mokkie (dewdrop).

15. Tetradynamia (“four forces”)

“Six husbands, four of them longer in a hermaphrodite flower”, i.e., four longer stamens and two shorter stamens in a hermaphroditic flower.

15.1 Tetradynamia Siliculosae (“four forces, siliculose”), four longer stamens (and two shorter ones) and seeds in a short pod (silicle): Myagrum (myagers), Vella (vellas), Anastatica (rose of Jericho), Subularia (awlworts), Draba (whitlow grasses), Lepidium (peppercresses), Thlaspi (pennycresses), Cochlearia (spoonworts), Iberis (candytufts), Alyssum (alyssums), Clypeola (more alyssums), Biscutella (biscutellas), Lunaria (honesties).

1758linnaeus_tetradynamia_siliculosae

Linnaeus put in the order Tetradynamia Siliculosae, among others, the following plants (from left to right, top to bottom): rose of Jericho (Anastatica hierochuntica), early whitlow-grass (Draba verna), garden cress (Lepidium sativum), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense), common spoonwort (Cochlearia officinalis), evergreen candytuft (Iberis sempervirens), spiny madwort (Alyssum spinosum), sweet alyssum (Clypeola maritima, now Lobularia maritima), common honesty (Lunaria annua). Credits to Michael H. Lemmer (whitlow grass), Krish Dulal (garden cress), Karel Jakubec (spoonwort), Kurt Stüber (madwort), André Karwath (honesty) and Wikimedia users Phil41 (rose of Jericho), Bff (pennycress), Bouba (candytuft) and Hectonichus (sweet alyssum).

 15.2 Tetradynamia Siliquosae (“four forces, siliquose”), four longer stamens (and two shorter ones) and seeds in a long pod (silique): Dentaria (bittercresses), Cardamine (more bittercresses), Sisymbrium (hedge mustards), Erysimum (wallflowers), Cheiranthus (more wallflowers), Hesperis (dame’s rockets), Arabis (rockcresses), Turritis (towercresses), Brassica (cabbages, mustards and allies), Sinapis (some mustards), Raphanus (radishes), Bunias (warty cabbages), Isatis (woads), Crambe (seakales), Cleome (spiderflowers).

1758linnaeus_tetradynamia_siliquosae

The order Tetradynamia Siliquosa included (from left to right, top to bottom): narrowleaf bittercress (Cardamine impatiens), common hedge-mustard (Sisymbrium officinale), common dame’s rocket (Hesperis matronalis), Alpine rockcress (Arabis alpina), common towercress (Turritis glabra), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis), cultivated radish (Raphanus sativus), common woad (Isatis tinctoria), common seakale (Crambe maritima), African spiderflower (Cleome gynandra). Credits to Meneerke Bloem (bittercress), James K. Lindsey (hedge mustard), Jason Pratt (dame’s rocket), Jerzy Opiała (rockcress), Olivier Pichard (wild mustard), Curtis Clark (radish), Kurt Stüber (woad), Anne Burgess (seakale), Ton Rulkens (spiderflower) and Wikimedia users Rigel7 (towercress) and Griensteidl (cabbage).

As you can notice, these classes include many culinary plants. And finally we are getting close to the end of flowering plants, but there are still quite a lot to show.

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References:

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae…

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5 Comments

Filed under Botany, Systematics, taxonomy

5 responses to “The history of Systematics: Plants in Systema Naturae, 1758 (Part 5)

  1. Pingback: The history of Systematics: Plants in Systema Naturae, 1758 (Part 6) | Earthling Nature

  2. Pingback: The history of Systematics: Plants in Systema Naturae, 1758 (Part 1) | Earthling Nature

  3. Pingback: The history of Systematics: Plants in Systema Naturae, 1758 (Part 2) | Earthling Nature

  4. Pingback: The history of Systematics: Plants in Systema Naturae, 1758 (Part 3) | Earthling Nature

  5. Pingback: The history of Systematics: Plants in Systema Naturae, 1758 (Part 7) | Earthling Nature

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