by Piter Kehoma Boll
We are all familiar with animals of many species that developed interesting mechanisms to avoid being eaten. This includes, for example, animals that look like plant parts:
and animals that merge with the background:
There are also animals that look like other, unpalatable or dangerous, animals, in order to push predators away:
But we rarely think that plants also use this sort of mechanisms to avoid being eaten. There are, however, some recorded cases of similar behaviors in plants. One case is that of the plant Corydalis benecincta, whose leaves commonly have the brownish color of the surrounding rocks:
Recently, a study on plants of the genus Amorphophallus found another interesting case of mimicry. This genus, which includes the famous titan arum, usually develops a single large leaf that in some species can attain the size of a small tree or shrub. Such a gigantic leaf seems to be a perfect meal for some herbivores but, to avoid them, many species of this genus developed a series of marks along the petiole of their leaf that look like lichens or cyanobacteria.
With this mimicry, the petioles, which are quite tender, end up looking like a hard and old trunk that does not look that interesting as a meal for most herbivores. The lichen marks are so well represented that they can even be associated with real lichen genera. For example, the marks seen on the figures B and C above look like lichens of the genus Cryptothecia.
How and why this marks evolved across Amorphophallus species is still not well understood. Despite the hypothesis that they help the plant mimic a tree trunk, some species with small leaves also have those marks, while some with large leaves do not have any marks or have them in simpler patterns. The titan arum Amorphophallus titanum is a good example of the latter:
For a long time, plants were regarded as less dynamic organisms than animals, but in recent years our knowledge about them is increasing and showing that they are actually very versatile creatures that developed similar creative and complex strategies.
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Claudel C, Lev-Yadun S, Hetterscheid W, & Schultz M 2019. Mimicry of lichens and cyanobacteria on tree-sized Amorphophallus petioles results in their masquerade as inedible tree trunks. Bot J Linn Soc 190: 192–214.
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