by Piter Kehoma Boll
In dioic species, i.e., those in which males and females are separate organisms, sexual dimorphism is very common. It is usually possible to say whether an individual is male or female through external caracteristics, such as color pattern, size or proportion of different body parts.
Vertebrates and arthropods are certainly the two phyla in which sexual dimorphism is best known and found very often. See, for example, the birds above and the spiders below.
The mechanisms that lead to sexual dimorphism are usually the same that lead to the differences in sex by itself. In mammals, birds and arthropods, it is usually due to differences in chromosomes. In other groups, such as crocodiles and snakes, it may be simply a matter of incubation temperature. It is not uncommon to find deviations from this “ideal” dichotomy, with organisms showing unusual chromosome combinations or other features that originate intermediate forms, such as hermaphrodites or androgynous individuals. We have a lot of this in our own species!
There is, however, a much more intriguing and astonishing male-female blend that is often found in arthropods. Known as gynandromorphism, this phenomenon creates specimens with mixed male and female characters forming a mosaic in which one part of the body is male and the other is female. And this distribution is usually bilateral, with one side of the body being male and the other being female.
A recent paper by Labora & Pérez-Miles (2017) describes the first report of gynandromorphism in a mygalomorph spider (i.e., a tarantula). As the images are not distributed in an open access or creative commons licese, I cannot publish them here, but you can read the article for free thanks to our most beloved god, SciHub.
The causes of gynandromorphism are not always clear, but most of the times it seems to be due to a chromosome impairment in mitosis during the first stages of embryonic development. Thus, it is more likely to occur in inviduals that were originally heterogametic, i.e., they had two different sex chromosomes in their zygote.
Gynandromorphism should not be confused with chimerism, a somewhat similar phenomenon in which an individual is the result of the fusion of two different embryos.
Now tell me, isn’t nature fascinating in every single detail?
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References and further reading:
Jones, S. R.; Philips Jr., S. A. (1985) Gynandromorphism in the ant Pheidole dentata Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 87(3): 583–586.
Laborda, A.; Pérez-Miles, F. (2017) The first case of gynandry in Mygalomorphae: Pterinochilus murinus, morphology and comments on sexual behavior. Journal of Arachnology, 45(2): 235–237. https://doi.org/10.1636/JoA-S-049.1
Labruna, M. B.; Homem, V. S. F.; Heinemman, M. B.; Ferreira Neto, J. S. (2000) A case of gynandromorphism in Amblyomma oblongoguttatum (Acari: Ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology, 37(5): 777–779.
Olmstead, A. W.; LeBlanc, G. A. (2007) The environmental-endocrine basis of gynandromorphism (intersex) in a crustacean. International Journal of Biological Sciences 3(2): 77–84.
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