by Piter Kehoma Boll
(First of all, I wish it were Bolsonaro, that piece of diarrhea-shaped cancer, who were dying by fire instead of the Amazon forest.)
(Now let’s go to the post itself:)
The São Francisco de Paula National Forest (FLONA-SFP) is a protected area for sustainable use in southern Brazil. Its was originally covered by Araucaria forest but currently is composed of a mosaic of the native forest and plantations of Araucaria, Pinus and Eucalyptus trees. This protection area is one of the main study areas of Unisinos’ Planarian Research Institute, where I conducted my undergradate, Master’s and PhD studies.
After studying the land planarian community of FLONA-SFP for many years, we conclude that it includes a fairly large number of species. Take a look at some of them and how cool they are:
Land planarians live in the leaf litter of forest soils and prey on other invertebrates. The 22 species shown above are the ones found in FLONA-SFP that are formally described but there are still some awaiting description. We could say that there are at least 30 different species coexisting in this protected area.
How can they all persist together? Isn’t there any sort of competition for food? Thinking of that, I conducted my master’s research investigating the diet of those and other land planarians. My results suggest that, although some species share many food items, most of them have a preferred food or an exclusive food item that could be considered what Reynoldson and Pierce (1979) called a “food refuge”.
Here is what we know about the FLONA-SFP’s species until now:
- Obama ficki feeds on slugs and snails and seems to prefer large slugs;
- Obama ladislavii feeds on slugs and snails and seems to prefer snails;
- Obama maculipunctata feeds on slugs and snails with unknown preference;
- Obama anthropophila feeds on slugs, snails and other land planarians, especially of the genus Luteostriata, and prefers the latter;
- Obama josefi apparently feeds on other land planarians only;
- All species of Luteostriata feed exclusively on woodlice;
- Species of Choeradoplana apparently feed on woodlice and harvestmen;
- Cephaloflexa araucariana apparently feeds on harvestmen;
The diet of the remaining species is still completely unknown but, based on other species of the same genera, it is likely that species of Pasipha feed on millipedes, species of Paraba feed on slugs and planarians, and Imbira guaiana feeds on earthworms.
There are plenty of different invertebrate groups that share the leaf litter with land planarians. Despite the apparently simple anatomy of these flatworms, they were able to adapt to feed on different types of prey and have muscular and pharyngeal adaptations for that. And attempt to relate anatomical adaptations to the diet of land planarians was part of my PhD research. As soon as it is published, I’ll make a post about it. There are some nice results!
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More on land planarians:
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Boll PK & Leal-Zanchet AM 2015. Predation on invasive land gastropods by a Neotropical land planarian. J. Nat. Hist. 49: 983–994.
Boll PK & Leal-Zanchet AM 2016. Preference for different prey allows the coexistence of several land planarians in areas of the Atlantic Forest. Zoology 119: 162–168.
Leal-Zanchet AM & Carbayo F 2000. Fauna de Planárias Terrestres (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Terricola) da Floresta Nacional de São Francisco de Paula, RS, Brasil: uma análise preliminar. Acta Biologica Leopoldensia 22: 19–25.
Oliveira SM, Boll PK, Baptista V dos A, & Leal-Zanchet AM 2014. Effects of pine invasion on land planarian communities in an area covered by Araucaria moist forest. Zool. Stud. 53: 19.
Reynoldson TB & Piearce B 1979. Predation on snails by three species of triclad and its bearing on the distribution of Planaria torva in Britain. Journal of Zoology 189: 459–484.
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