by Piter Kehoma Boll
One of the most iconic representations of praying mantids is that of a female eating the male after (or during) sex, an unpleasant scenario that starts with a beheading before the poor male even finishes his job.
According to some studies, when the male is beheaded, he increases the pumping of semen into the female, thus increasing the chances of fecundation. This could make one think that being eaten is actually an advantage to the male, as it makes him have more offspring.
Several observations with different species show the opposite though. Males make everything they can to avoid being eaten by the female, as it allows them to copulate with additional females. But how can they escape from such a gruesome destiny?
It is known that hungry females are more eager to eat the partner than satiated ones. Well-fed females (fat ones) are also less likely to have a meal in bed than malnourished ones. Males can tell whether a female is hungry or malnourished and thus avoid those in such conditions. They like fat and fed females. But this is not the only thing that males take into account when choosing the appropriate mother for their children.
A study from 2015 by researchers of the University of Buenos Aires have shown that males of the species Parastagmatoptera tessellata, found in South America, also choose females based on their personality.
In a laboratory experiment, a male was put in a container where he could see two females, one aggressive and one non-aggressive. Another male was presented to both females (which were unable to see each other) and the aggressive female always attacked the male, while the non-aggressive one never did. After watching how each female behaved, the male received access to both and could choose his favorite one.
And guess what? The non-aggressive one was chosen most of the time. This means that males are not only able to tell whether they are likely to be eaten based on the female’s hunger and nutritional condition, but also by analyzing the behavior of the female towards other males.
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Lelito, J., & Brown, W. (2008). Mate attraction by females in a sexually cannibalistic praying mantis Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 63 (2), 313-320 DOI: 10.1007/s00265-008-0663-8
Scardamaglia, R., Fosacheca, S., & Pompilio, L. (2015). Sexual conflict in a sexually cannibalistic praying mantid: males prefer low-risk over high-risk females Animal Behaviour, 99, 9-14 DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2014.10.013
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