Tag Archives: Europe

Old Italian trees: a step toward worldwide recognition?

by Piter Kehoma Boll

Some years ago I wrote an article (you can read it here) about the importance of trees, especially old trees, and how their ecological role is different from that of a young tree.


Ancient trees are ecological preciosities and need to be preserved for the sake of their ecosystems. Photo by flickr user loshak.*

In Italy, there are specific laws erected to protect ancient trees, especially if they are unique for their species or have some sort of aesthetic or cultural value. Recently, their importance for the preservation of a variety of lifeforms has also started to be recognized. A recently published article by a group of Italian researchers (see below) compared the noteworthy old trees in Italy recorded in a previous list and a new list. They conclude that the new inventory has considerable improvements, although some issues remain, including the presence of exotic, even invasive, species in the list.

But such initiatives are at least important as a first step that may guide us to a better understanding and management of old trees, which are precious elements, but continue to decline worldwide.

Read the study for free:

Zapponi, L.; Mazza, G.; Farina, A.; Fedrigoli, L.; Mazzocchi, F.; Roversi, P. F.; Peverieri, G. S.; Mason, F. (2017) The role of monumental trees for the preservation of saproxylic biodiversity: re-thinking their management in cultural landscapes. Nature Conservation 19: 231–243.

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Friday Fellow: Common Stinkhorn

by Piter Kehoma Boll

Today things are getting sort of pornographic again. Some time ago I introduced a plant whose flowers resemble a woman’s vulva, the asian pigeonwing, and now is time to look at something of the other sex. And what could be better than the shameless penis? That’s the translation of the scientific name of this mushroom, Phallus impudicus, whose common name in English is much more discrete: common stinkhorn.


Standing proud and shameless. Photo by flickr user Björn S…*

Found throughout Europe and parts of North America in deciduous woods, the common stinkhorn is easily recognizable for its phallic shape and even more for its foul smell that resembles carrion. This odor attracts insects, especially flies, that carry the spores away. This is a different method from the one used by most fungi, which simply release the spores in the air. Some people may mistake the common stinkhorn for morels (genus Morchella) but the two are completely unrelated, being from different phyla.

Despite the foul smell, the common stinkhorn is edible, especially in its first stages of development, when it resembles an egg. Due to its phallic shape, it is also seen as an aphrodisiac in some culture, as it is common with genitalia-shaped lifeforms.


The immature fruiting body of Phallus impudicus is the most commonly eaten form. Photo by Danny Steven S.*

The common stinkhorn seems to have some anticoagulant properties and can be used for patients susceptible to thrombosis in the veins, such as patients treating breast cancer.

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Kuznecov, G., Jegina, K., Kuznecovs, S., & Kuznecovs, I. (2007). P151 Phallus impudicus in thromboprophylaxis in breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and hormonal treatment The Breast, 16 DOI: 10.1016/s0960-9776(07)70211-4

SMITH, K. (2009). On the Diptera associated with the Stinkhorn (Phallus impudicus Pers.) with notes on other insects and invertebrates found on this fungus. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London. Series A, General Entomology, 31 (4-6), 49-55 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3032.1956.tb00206.x

Wikipedia. Phallus impudicus. Available at <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phallus_impudicus&gt;. Access on March 7, 2017.

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