Tag Archives: facts

Friday Fellow: Grasshopper Nematode

by Piter Kehoma Boll

About one and a half year ago, I presented the long and thread-like wood cricket’s worm, a parasite that can control the behavior of the wood cricket and leaves its body once becoming an adult. The wood cricket’s worm belongs to the phylum Nematomorpha, commonly known as horsehair worms. They are closely related to phylum Nematoda, the roundworms. And just like horsehair worms, roundworms also love to infect crickets and grasshoppers.

One of those species is Mermis nigrescens, known as the grasshopper nematode. This worm can be found all over the world where grasshoppers exist, although they seem to be more common in Eurasia and the Americas.

An adult, gravid female. Photo by wikimedia user Beentree.**

Adults of the grasshopper nematode live in the soil and are very large for a nematode. Males measure about 5 cm in length and females can reach 20 cm, which is much larger than most nematodes that infect insects. They are, therefore, very similar to horsehair worms in appearance and behavior. The body has a smooth surface and a pale brown color, with females having a red spot on their head, the chromatopore, which functions like an eye.

After adults mate in spring or summer, males usually die but females remain in the soil through fall and winter and emerge in the following spring after a rainfall. They show a black stripe running along the body that is caused by thousands of eggs inside. They climb the nearby vegetation, up to 3 m above the ground, and lay their eggs, which measure about 0.5 mm in length, on it.

A female climbing the vegetation. Photo by Wikimedia user Notafly.**

In order to be able to climb the vegetation, female grasshopper nematodes show positive phototaxis, i.e., they are attracted by light sources, which is the opposite of what happens with most nematodes that have eyes. In fact the female’s eye, the chromatopore, is a single structure, like a single eye, and seems to have evolved independently from other nematode eyes. Its red color is caused by a hemoglobin, like the one that makes our blood red, but in this case it seems to function as a light receptor.

A closeup of the female eye and a transverse section through it. Extracted from Burr et al. (2000).*

When the eggs are ingested by an orthopteran insect (usually a grasshopper but sometimes a katydid), they hatch almost immediately. The young worm pierces the grasshopper’s gut and enters its hemocoel, the “blood cavity” of the body.

An adult around its dead host, a katydid. Photo by Wikimedia user Beentree.**

There, the worm develops by absorbing nutrients from the insect’s blood directly through its cuticle. This leads to serious depletion in the insect’s levels of blood sugar, especially trehalose (the insect storage sugar) and body proteins. After reaching 5 cm or more in size, they leave the insect, killing it in the process, and continue their development in the soil until reaching the adult stage and starting the cycle all over again.

– – –

Like us on Facebook!

Follow us on Twitter!

– – –

References:

Burr AHJ, Babinzski CPF, Ward AJ (1990) Components of phototaxis of the nematode Mermis nigrescens. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 167: 245–255. doi: 10.1007/BF00188117

Burr AHJ, Hunt P, Wagar DR, Dewilde S, Blaxter ML, Vanfleteren JR, Moens L (2000) A Hemoglobin with an Optical Function. Journal of Biological Chemistry 275: 4810–4815. doi: 10.1074/jbc.275.7.4810

Burr AHJ, Schiefke R, Bollerup G (1975) Properties of a hemoglobin from the chromatrope of the nematode Mermis nigrescens. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Protein Structure 405(2): 401–411. doi: 10.1016/0005-2795(75)90105-1

Gordon R, Webster JM (1971) Mermis nigrescens: Physiological relationship with its host, the adult desert locust Schistocerca gregaria. Experimental Parasitology 29(1): 66–79. doi: 10.1016/0014-4894(71)90012-9

Rutherford TA, Webster JM (1974) Transcuticular Uptake of Glucose by the Entomophilic Nematode, Mermis nigrescens. Journal of Parasitology 60(5): 804–808. doi: 10.2307/3278905

Rutherford TA, Webster JM (1978) Some effects of Mermis nigrescens on the hemolymph of Schistocerca gregaria. Canadian Journal of Zoology 56(2): 339–347. doi: 10.1139/z78-046

– – –

**Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Leave a comment

Filed under Friday Fellow, Parasites, worms, Zoology

Friday Fellow: Arctic Woolly Bear Moth

by Piter Kehoma Boll

Last week I introduced the arctic willow, an unusual willow that lives as a creeping plant in the Arctic and, as I mentioned then, many species feed on this small plant. One of this species is Gynaeophora groenlandica, known as the arctic woolly bear moth.

As it is common among lepidopterans, the caterpillars of the arctic woolly bear moth feed mainly on only one species, in this case the arctic willow. But they are much more than only a caterpillar feeding on an unusual plant.

An arctic woolly bear moth among the branches of an arctic willow. Photo by Fiona Paton.*

Inhabiting greenland and the islands of Canada, the arctic woolly bear moth lives in an extreme environment in which temperatures are very low during most of the year. As a result, it is unable to remain active during several months and, like many arctic species, it hibernates.

In most of the world, the caterpillar of the arctic woolly bear moth would be considered of an average size but in its environment it is a relatevely large insect. Its body is covered by soft and long hair which varies from a reddish-brown to a dark-brown color. Adults have a grayish color with a hairy abdomen.

An adult waiting to mate. Photo by iNaturalist user pat_lorch.**

The adults mate and lay eggs around the end of June. The eggs hatch very quickly and the small first-instar larvae start to eat on arctic willow leaves but during July the temperatures start to drop quickly and the very small larvae prepare to hibernate. They spin a silken hibernaculum, a shelter to hibernate, and enter diapause, remaining inactive until June of the next year. When the snow starts to melt, they wake up, start to feed again and molt, reaching the second instar before the end of June. Then they spin another hibernaculum and enter diapause again. This cycle continues for the next years until they reach the 8th year since they hatched.

A caterpillar waking up in its hibernaculum. Photo by iNaturalist user pat_lorch.**

In that year, the caterpillars molt into pupae, which develop into adults in about a week. The adults then mate, lay their eggs, the eggs hatch and new first-instar larvae restart the cycle. Hatching in late June of the first year and mating and dying in mid June of the 8th year, the arctic woolly bear moth completes its life cycle in about 7 years, but this is restricted to 3 only weeks each year. They spend more than 90% of their life as hibernating caterpillars.

Two adults mating in June. Photo by iNaturalist user pat_lorch.**

It is not easy to be a moth in the cold Arctic. And the arctic woolly bear moth must not only survive the harsh winters but is always threatened by parasitoids, because we all know that those damn creatures exist everywhere.

And with such a specialized life cycle, what could happen with the arctic woolly bear moth now that the temperatures in the Arctic are rising? Will it survive what we have done with Earth’s climate?

– – –

Like us on Facebook!

Follow us on Twitter!

– – –

References:

Morewood WD, Ring RA (1998) Revision of the life history of the High Arctic moth Gynaephora groenlandica (Wocke) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 76:1371–1381.

Morewood DW, Wood MD (2002) Host utilization by Exorista thula Wood (sp. nov.) and Chetogena gelida (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tachinidae), parasitoids of arctic Gynaephora species (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Polar Biology 25: 575–582. doi: 10.1007/s00300-002-0382-y

Wikipedia. Gynaephora gronelandica. Available at < https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gynaephora_groenlandica >. Access on February 9, 2020.

– – –

*Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International License.

**Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Leave a comment

Filed under Entomology, Friday Fellow

Friday Fellow: Reddish Cuckoo Wasp

by Piter Kehoma Boll

Besides the well-known internal and external parasites that feed on resources of the host, nature has other types of parasitism as well. One of those types is the so-called brood parasitism, in which an animal puts its eggs in the nest of another animal so that they will be raised by foster parents, usually from a different species. Cuckoos are certainly the most famous brood parasites, laying their eggs in the nests of other birds.

But brood parasites exist among other animal groups as well, including, of course, the diverse order Hymenoptera. Wasps of the family Chrysididae are known as cuckoo wasps because they put their eggs in the nests of other wasps. One species of this family is Hedychrum rutilans, which I decided to call the reddish cuckoo wasp.

A reddish cuckoo was in the Netherlands. Photo by iNaturalist user v_s_*.

Adults of this species measure up to 1 cm in length and have a kind of ant-shaped body. Its most striking feature, however, is its metalic color, which is typical of cuckoo wasps. In the reddish cuckoo wasp, the abdomen and the front part of the thorax have a reddish tinge, while the rest of the body is somewhat green.

Living in Europe and the northermost regions of Africa, the reddish cuckoo wasp is a lovely nectar drinker as an adult. However, as a larva, it is a parasitoid. Females put their eggs inside another insect so that the larva feeds on the host from inside. However, as I mentioned, cuckoo wasps are brood parasites, hence the name cuckoo wasp. Thus, they do not hunt other insects to serve as hosts for their larvae. Instead, they invade the nests of another species, the European beewolf, which I presented last week, and lay their eggs on the bees that the European beewolf has hunted for its own offspring.

Reddish cuckoo wasp in France. Photo by iNaturalist user butor*.

When the egg of the reddish cuckoo wasp hatches, the larva starts to feed on the paralyzed bees and can even feed on the growing larvae of the beewolf. But how can the female cuckoo wasp manage to invade the beewolf’s nest without being noticed?

The surface of insects is covered by cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), which have several functions. They protect the body from water and have many functions for chemical communication, both intra- and interspecifically. Parasitoids, for example, rely on CHC cues to find their hosts, and many species, especially social insects such as bees and ants, use CHCs to recognize individuals of their own colony and to detect any invader, incluing parasitoids and brood parasites. Thus, a beewolf could easily locate a cuckoo wasp sneaking into its nest but natural selection made the necessary changes. The amount of CHCs on the surface of cuckoo wasps is way below the normal levels found in most insects. As a result, their smell is so weak that it cannot be perceived in a nest that reeks of beewolf CHCs.

A specimen in Russia. Photo by Shamal Murza.*

One strategy that beewolfs seem to have developed to reduce the levels of parasitism by the reddish cuckoo wasp is increasing their activity in the evening, when the cuckoo wasp activity is reduced. During this time, it is easier for beewolves to enter their nests without being detected by cuckoo wasps. When a beewolf detects a cuckoo wasp close to its nests, it attacks it ferociously. However, once a cuckoo wasp enters the nest, the beewolf is unable to recognize it even if running right into it due to its inability to chemically detect the invader.

Both parties, of course, will always try to find new ways to succeed. Nature is, afterall, a neverending arms race.

– – –

Like us on Facebook!

Follow us on Twitter!

– – –

References:

Kroiss J, Schmitt T, Strohm E (2009) Low level of cuticular hydrocarbons in a parasitoid of a solitary digger wasp and its potential for concealment. Entomological Science 12:9–16. doi: 10.1111/j.1479-8298.2009.00300.x

Kroiss J, Strohm E, Vandenbem C, Vigneron J-P (2009) An epicuticular multilayer reflector generates the iridescent coloration in chrysidid wasps (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae). Naturwissenschaften 983–986. doi: 10.1007/s00114-009-0553-6

Strohm E, Laurien-Kehnen C, Boron S (2001) Escape from parasitism: spatial and temporal strategies of a sphecid wasp against a specialised cuckoo wasp. Oecologia 129:50–57. doi: 10.1007/s004420100702

– – –

*Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Leave a comment

Filed under Entomology, Friday Fellow, Zoology

Friday Fellow: Spotless Lady Beetle

by Piter Kehoma Boll

Lady beetles, also known as ladybirds or ladybugs, are popular beetles famous for their round bodies and spotted elytra. Not all species have spots, though, such as Cycloneda sanguinea, adequately known as the spotless lady beetle.

A male spotless lady beetle in Florida, USA. Photo by Judy Gallagher.*

Occurring from the United States to Argentina, the spotless lady beetle is the most widespread lady beetle in South America. Its elytra vary from orange to deep red, while its pronotum and head have the typical black color with white marks that most lady beetles have. There is a little difference between males and females. Males have a white stripe running through the middle of the anterior half of the pronotum and the head has a white square on the “forehead”. Females lack the white stripe on the pronotum and have the white square crossed by a black mark, which turns it into two white stripes.

A female in Uruguay. Photo by Joaquín D.*

After mating, the female lays small clusters of yellow eggs on the vegetation, which hatch into larvae after about 10 days. The larva has the typical look of lady bettle larvae and the body in later instars have dark gray and yellow marks. The time that it takes to go from egg to adult varies a lot depending on the temperature, with higher temperatures accelerating development. Thus, in warm climates, the spotless lady beetle can have more than one generation per year.

A larva in Mexico. Photo by Francisco Sarriols Sarabia.*

The spotless lady beetle feeds mainly on aphids and, as many other lady beetle species, is used as a biological control against these plant pests in many crops, such as cotton, pine, beans and citrus species. It is a voracious aphid predator both as a larva and as an adult and females prefer to lay their eggs on plants that are infested by aphids to assure their offspring will have plenty of food.

A male about to take flight in California, USA. Photo by iNaturalist user kstny.*

Currently, one of the main threats to the spotless lady beetle is the Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis, which was deliberately or accidentally introduced in many areas in the Americas. Larger and more more aggressive, the Asian lady beetle outcompetes the Spotless Lady Beetle especially by eating its eggs and larvae but also by consuming its food, as both species have aphids as their main prey.

This is one more example about how biological control can be a nice alternative to spread poison on pests but only if conducted without introducing a voracious predator into another ecosystem.

– – –

Like us on Facebook!

Follow us on Twitter!

– – –

References:

Cardoso JT, Lázzar SMN (2003) Comparative biology of Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763) and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, 1842 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) focusing on the control of Cinara spp. (Hemiptera, Aphididae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 47(3): 443–446. doi: 10.1590/S0085-56262003000300014 

Işkıber AA (2005) Functional responses of two coccinellid predators, Scymnus levaillanti and Cycloneda sanguinea, to the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 29: 347–355.

Michaud JP (2002) Invasion of the Florida Citrus Ecosystem by Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Asymmetric Competition with a Native Species, Cycloneda sanguinea. Environmental Entomology 31(5): 827–835. doi: 10.1603/0046-225X-31.5.827

Sarmento RA, Venzon M, Pallini A, Oliveira EE, Janssen A (2007) Use of odours by Cycloneda sanguinea to assess patch quality. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 124(3): 313–318. doi: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.2007.00587.x

– – –

*Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Leave a comment

Filed under Entomology, Friday Fellow, Zoology

Friday Fellow: Common Fish Louse

by Piter Kehoma Boll

We all know that crustaceans comprise the most morphologically and ecologically diverse group of arthropods. One peculiar clade is that of the arguloids or fish lice.

As you may infer from the common name, the fish lice are parasites of fish, and eventually other vertebrates. One of the most common an well-known species is Argulus foliaceus, known as the common fish louse.

The common fish louse is found in freshwater bodies of Europe and parasitizes many different fish species. Their only food is fish blood, so they are forced to look for a host as soon as they hatch from their eggs. Once they find a fish, they attach firmly to its skin and remain there for most of their life. They only leave the host to mate or if the host dies and they need to find a new one. Trouts, perches, roaches and sticklebacks are some common hosts of the common fish louse.

Watch some eggs hatching and the larvae that come out of them.

The first and only larval stage, called metanauplius, measures less than 1 mm in length and has long and plumose antennae and palps but relatively short legs. The thoracic legs have claws, though, and help them to attach to the host. In the second stage, already a young adult, the antennae became much shorter but the legs grow more, especially the abdominal legs, which became plumose like the antennae used to be. From there on, the body remains with a more or less constant shape but increases in size, reaching about 6 mm at the 11th stage.

Several common fish lice parasitizing a brown trout in Denmark. Photo by iNaturalist user mikkel65.*

In natural environments, the number of common fish lice per fish is usually small and they do not harm the host that much. However, in confined habitats, such as fish farms, they can reach high densities and end up causing a high fish mortality.

Just like many other external parasites or other types of blood-sucking animals, the common fish louse can serve as an intermediary host for some nematode parasites that infect freshwater fish. The larval stages of the worm reach the fish louse when he feeds on infected fish and remain in its body, eventually infecting a new fish when the crustacean abandons its current home and searches for another one.

Thus, sometimes the main problem that fish face is not the fish louse itself, but rather its hitchhikers.

– – –

More maxillopods:

Friday Fellow: Glacial calanus (on 1 July 2016)

Friday Fellow: Common Goose Barnacle (on 31 May 2019)

– – –

References:

Harrison AJ, Gault NFS, Dick JTA (2006) Seasonal and vertical patterns of egg-laying by the freshwater fish louse Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea: Branchiura). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 68:167–173.

Molnár K, Székely C (1998) Occurrence of skrjabillanid nematodes in fishes of Hungary and in the intermediate host, Argulus foliaceus. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 46(4): 451-463.

Pasternak AF, Mikheev VN, Valtonen ET (2000) Life history charactheristics of Argulus foliaceus L. (Crustacea: Branchiura) populations in Central Finland. Annales Zoologici Fennici 37: 25–35.

Rushton-Mellor SK, Boxshall GA (1994) The developmental sequence of Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea: Branchiura). Journal of Natural History 28(4): 763–785. doi: 10.1080/00222939400770391

– – –

*Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Leave a comment

Filed under crustaceans, Friday Fellow, Parasites

Friday Fellow: Hippo Fly

by Piter Kehoma Boll

If you ever lived in the countryside or visited the country side often, you may be aware of the existence of an annoying group of flies that bite humans and other animals, the so-called horseflies that make up the family Tabanidae. Today’s fellow is a member of this family and is known scientifically as Tabanus biguttatus and commonly as the hippo fly.

This species is found throughout Africa and some areas of Middle East, being, apparently, much more common in eastern and southeastern Africa. As with all tabanid flies, the hippo fly has an aquatic to semiaquatic larva that lives in muddy areas. They are ferocious predators and prey on other animals living in the same habitat, such as larvae of crane flies, and can also feed on dead animals. When the larvae are about the pupate, they construct a mud cylinder, cover it with a circular lid with only a small hole to allow them to breathe, and remain there until they turn into adults. This is, apparently, a strategy to avoid desiccation.

Male hippo fly in South Africa. Photo by Ryan Tippett.*

Adult hippo flies measure about 2 cm in length, being relatively large tabanids, and show a considerable sexual dimorphism. As all tabanids, males are smaller but have larger compound eyes than females. The eyes of the males are so large that they touch each other, covering the whole top of the head. Females, on the other hand, have smaller eyes with a considerable space between them. The body of both males and females is predominantly black. Males have two white triangular spots on the abdomen while females have the thorax covered with white to golden hair with a small heart-shaped black spot in the middle.

Female hippo fly in South Africa. Photo by iNaturalist user bgwright.*

Male adult hippo flies are harmless and feed only on nectar. Females, on the other hand, need mammal blood to obtain enough protein for egg development. They attack many large mammal species, including humans, cattle and even dogs, but they have a strong preference for hippos, hence the common name.

Two female hippo flies feeding on a southern warthog (Phacocerus africanus spp. sundevallii). Photo by iNaturalist user happyasacupake.*

Hippo flies, like all tabanids, are diurnal flies and love sunny places. They avoid shaded areas, so animals in open areas are much more vulnerable. To get blood, a female approach animals and cut their skin with her sharp mouthparts, making them bleed and licking up the blood. This bite is very painful, which you may know if you have ever been bitten by a horsefly. If undisturbed, the fly can remain up to three minutes drinking blood.

Closeup of the two flies on the warthog’s back. Photo by iNaturalist user happyasacupake.*

The blood-drinking activity of female hippo flies, and of tabanids in general, make them likely mechanical vectors of some parasites, including species of the flagellate genus Tripanossoma, as well as Bacillus anthracis, the bacteria that causes anthrax, which is a considerably common disease in hippos.

Hippo flies are such a nuisance for hippos that their behavior is heavily affected by the flies’ presence, much more than by the presence of any large predator. Most of the time, hippos remain in the water solely to get rid of these annoying insects.

– – –

More Dipterans:

Friday Fellow: Housefly (on 12 October 2012)

Friday Fellow: Cute Bee Fly (on 29 July 2016)

Friday Fellow: Bathroom Moth Midge (on 5 April 2019)

Friday Fellow: Blue Paddled Mosquito (on 27 September 2019)

– – –

Like us on Facebook!

Follow us on Twitter!

– – –

References:

Callan EM (1980) Larval feeding habits of Tabanus biguttatus and Amanella emergens in South Africa (Diptera: Tabanidae). Revue de Zoologie Africaine 94(4): 791-794.

Tinley KL (2009) Some observations on certain tabanid flies in North-Eastern Zululand (Diptera: Tabanidae). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London. Series A, General Entomology, 39(4-6), 73–75. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3032.1964.tb00789.x

Tremlett JG (2009) Mud cylinders formed by larvae of Tabanus biguttatus Wied. (Diptera: Tabanidae) in Kenya. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London. Series A, General Entomology, 39(1-3), 23–24. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3032.1964.tb00779.x

Wiesenhütter E (1975) Research into the relative importance of Tabanidae (Diptera) in mechanical disease transmission. Journal of Natural History, 9(4), 385–392. doi: 10.1080/00222937500770281 

– – –

*Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Leave a comment

Filed under Entomology, Friday Fellow

Friday Fellow: Black-Tailed Red Sheetweaver

by Piter Kehoma Boll

There are many spider groups that are well-known by the general public: tarantulas, jumping spiders, wolf spiders, orbweavers… but one of the groups with a very large number of species, the family Linyphiidae, is usually unnoticed.

Spiders of the family Linyphiidae are commonly known as sheetweavers because of the shape of their webs. A common species in the eastern United States, especially in the southeast, is Florinda coccinea, known as the black-tailed red sheetweaver or red grass spider. Being only 3 to 4 mm long, the black-tailed red sheetweaver has a red body with a small black tip on the abdomen. The legs are reddish-brown to black.

Female black-tailed red sheetweaver in Mississipi, USA. Photo by Tiffany Stone.*

Males and females are very similar in size, with males being slightly smaller. They can be easily distinguished by the abdomen and the pedipalps as in most spiders. Females have smaller pedipalps and a rounder abdomen, while males have larger pedipalps with a round expansion at the tip and slenderer abdomens.

A male in Florida, USA. Photo by iNaturalist user rsnyder11.*

The web of the black-tailed red sheetweaver, just like in other sheetweavers, consists of an horizontal sheet over which some additional threads above. Flying insects, when they colide with the threads, fall on the sheet and are captured by the spider.

Typical aspect of the black-tailed red sheetweaver’s web as seen in the field, here covered by dew droplets. Photo by iNaturalist user ndrobinson.**

The mating behavior of the black-tailed red sheetweaver begings with the male entering the female’s web. He usually cuts off part of the female’s web and deposits new web at the same place. After this, he approaches the female, touches all her legs with his two anterior pairs of legs, and then start the pseudopulation, in which he introduces the tubes of his palps into the female genitalia but, as they are still empty, fertilization cannot occur. After some time playing like this, the male builds a small triangular web sheet and deposits a drop of sperm on it. He then collects the sperm with his pedipalps and approaches the female once more, this time breeding her for sure.

Again, the ecology and life-history of the black-tailed red sheetweaver is not very well studied. And the same is true for almost all species in the family Linyphiidae, even though it is the second largest spider family on the planet. They are too tiny for most of us to care.

– – –

References:

Robertson MW, Adler PH (1994) Mating behavior of Florinda coccinea (Hentz) (Araneae: Linyphiidae). Journal of Insect Behavior 7(3): 313–326. doi: 10.1007/BF01989738

Wikipedia. Blacktailed red sheetweaver. Available at < https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blacktailed_red_sheetweaver >. Access on October 23, 2019.

– – –

*Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

**Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Leave a comment

Filed under Arachnids, Friday Fellow, Spiders