Tag Archives: mites

Friday Fellow: Cuban-Laurel-Thrips Mite

by Piter Kehoma Boll

Last week I introduced the Cuban Laurel Thrips, which feeds on several fig trees, such as the Chinese Banyan and the Cuban Laurel. Today, we will continue up the food chain and talk about a mite that is a parasite of the cuban laurel thrips. Named Adactylidium gynaikothripsi, I decided to give it the common name “Cuban-Laurel-Thrips Mite”.

The Cuban-laurel-thrips mite was described only in 2011 from Cuban laurel thrips populations in Greece. This is the fourth mite of the genus Adactylidium known to parasitize the Cuban laurel thrips, the other four being Adactylidium ficorum (“fig-thrips mite”), A. brasiliensis (“Brazilian thrips mite”) and A. fletchmani (“Fletchman’s thrips mite”). As you can imagine, in order to parasitize an insect as small as the Cuban laurel thrips, these mites are even smaller, measuring about 0.1 mm in length.

An adult female of the Cuban-laurel-thrips mite. Extracted from Antonatos et al. (2011).

The life cycle of the Cuban-laurel-thrips mite, which is basically the same for all species of Adactylidium, is very bizarre. Adult females feed on the eggs of the Cuban Laurel Thrips. They start their adult life wandering over fig leaves looking for a suitable thrips egg to attack. Once finding one, they pierce the egg’s shell with their chelicerae and attach to it like ticks and start to eat. They feed on a single egg across their entire life. If they are unable to find an egg, they may also attach to an adult thrips as a last resource, or else they die of starvation in a few hours.

Once a female starts to eat, a small group of eggs, usually between 5 to 10, begins to develop inside her. The eggs grow during the first 48 hours after the female attached to the egg, making her double in size and becoming something like a spherical egg sac. The eggs hatch around this time and the mite larvae remain inside their mother. These larvae lack mouth parts, so it is believed that they absorb nutrients from her mother directly through the body surface. About 24 hours later, the larvae turn into nymphs, which remain inactive inside the shed skin of the larva. They also lack any mouth parts.

Female Cuban-laurel-thrips mites attached to eggs of the Cuban laurel thrips. Extracted from Antonatos et al. (2011).

Another 24 hours pass and the nymphs turn into adult mites. They are still inside their mother when this happens. The adults consist always of a single male and several females. This male then starts to copulate with his own sisters, still inside their mother’s abdomen, and, when copulation is finished, they start to tear their mother’s body apart to get free, killing her in the process. Once outside the body, the male dies in a few minutes, never eating anything other than his own mother. The females, on the other hand, start to look for thrips eggs on which to feed, only to be killed by her own children less than 4 days laters.

This entire life cycle may look very insane from our human perspective, but nature was never interested in following our moral rules.

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References:

Antonatos SA, Kapaxidi EV, Papadoulis, GT (2011) Adactylidium gynaikothripsi n. sp. (Acari: Acarophenacidae) associated with Gynaikothrips ficorum (Marshal) (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) from Greece. International Journal of Acarology, 37(sup1), 18–26. doi: 10.1080/01647954.2010.531763

Elbadry, EA, Tawfik, MSF (1966) Life Cycle of the Mite Adactylidium sp. (Acarina: Pyemotidae), a Predator of Thrips Eggs in the United Arab Republic. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 59(3), 458–461. doi: 10.1093/aesa/59.3.458

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Filed under Arachnids, Friday Fellow

New Species: November 11 to 20

by Piter Kehoma Boll

Here is a list of species described from November 11 to  November 20. It certainly does not include all described species. Most information comes from the journals Mycokeys, Phytokeys, Zookeys, Phytotaxa, Zootaxa, International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, and Systematic and Applied Microbiology, as well as journals restricted to certain taxa.

liolaemus_leftrarui

Liolaemus leftrarui is a new lizard species described in the past 10 days.

Hacrobians

SARs

Plants

Excavates

Fungi

Cnidarians

Rotifers

Annelids

Arachnids

Crustaceans

Insects

Ray-finned fishes

Lissamphibians

Reptiles

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Filed under Systematics, taxonomy

Friday Fellow: Giant red velvet mite

by Piter Kehoma Boll

While walking through an Indian market, you may end up finding something like this being sold as food:

Hmm, it looks like some sort of chips or dried seeds. Photo by Pankaj Oudhia.*

Hmm, it looks like some sort of chips or dried seeds. Photo by Pankaj Oudhia.*

It may look as some sort of crispy seed or dried fruit, some local chips, maybe? But they are actually giant mites… edible mites! They are used in India as a medicine, especially to treat paralysis and allegedly to increase sexual drive, a reason for the popular expression “Indian Viagra”.

But this edible arachnids are actually quite cute when alive. Known cientifically as Trombidium grandissimum and popularly as giant red velvet mite, they are fluffy like a piece of velvet, have a strong red color and reach up to 2 cm in length, a record for mites, which usually measure way less than a milimeter.

I would love to raise them as a pet. Wouldn't you? Photo by Brian Gratwicke.**

I would love to raise them as a pet. Wouldn’t you? Photo by Brian Gratwicke.**

As adults, the giant red velvet mites live freely and prey on small animals, mainly insects, and their eggs. The larvae, on the other hand, start their life as a parasite, attaching themselves to another invertebrate, usually an insect, but sometimes an arachnid, and suck their hemolymph (“blood”). Later, this parasitic larva develops into a free-living nymph that abandons the host and begins to live more like an adult.

The genus Trombidium has many species in the Palearctic Ecozone, so if you are wandering in a forest in Europe or Asia, you may find the giant red velvet mite or one of its cousins.

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References:

Southcott, R. V.  1986. Studies on the taxonomy and biology of the subfamily Trombidiinae (Acarina: Trombidiidae) with a critical revision of the genera. Australian Journal of Zoology, 123: 1-116.

Wikipedia. Trombidium. Available at: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trombidium&gt;. Access on July 21, 2016.

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*Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

**Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic License.

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Filed under Friday Fellow, Zoology

New Species: July 11 to July 20

by Piter Kehoma Boll

Here is a list of species described from July 11 to July 20. It certainly does not include all described species. Most information comes from the journals Mycokeys, Phytokeys, Zookeys, Phytotaxa, Zootaxa, International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, and Systematic and Applied Microbiology, as well as journals restricted to certain taxa.

Pseudoechthistatus sinicus(top) and P. pufujiae are two of the more than 40 new species of beetles described in the last 10 days.

Pseudoechthistatus sinicus (top) and P. pufujiae (bottom) are two of the 40 new species of beetles described in the last 10 days.

Archaea

Bacteria

SARs

Plants

Excavates

Fungi

Sponges

Flatworms

Annelids

Mollusks

Roundworms

Arachnids

Myriapods

Crustaceans

Hexapods

Cartilaginous fishes

Ray-finned fishes

Reptiles

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Filed under Systematics, taxonomy

Biological fight: kites, mites, quite bright plights

ResearchBlogging.orgby Piter Kehoma Boll

A recently described fossil from the Silurian Herefordshire Lagerstätte in the United Kingdom has called much attention.

A photo of the fossil itself. Image by Briggs et al., extracted from news.nationalgeographic.com

A photo of the fossil itself. Image by Briggs et al., extracted from news.nationalgeographic.com

The appearance of the creature was build by scanning the rock and creating a 3D reconstruction of the fossil. It revealed that the animal, obviously and arthropod, had several smaller creatures attached by long threads, like kites. The species was named Aquilonifer spinosus, meaning “spiny kite-bearer”.

A 3D reconstruction of what Aquilonifer and its kites would have looked like. Image by Briggs et al. extracted from sci-news.com

A 3D reconstruction of what Aquilonifer and its kites would have looked like. Image by Briggs et al. extracted from sci-news.com

The authors (Briggs et al., 2016) thought about three possibilities to explain the unusual “kites”. They could be parasites, phoronts (i.e., hitchhikers), or babies. The idea of parasites was discarded because such long threads separating them from the host would have made it difficult to feed properly. They also considered it unlikely to be a case of phoronts, i.e., a species that uses the host as a mean to move from one site to another, because there were too many of them and the host most likely would have removed them by using the long antennae.

Artistic impression of Aquilonifer spinosus by Andrey Atuchin.

Artistic impression of Aquilonifer spinosus by Andrey Atuchin.

The remaining option is that the kites were offspring. The mother (or father) would have attached them to itself in order do carry them around in a unique mode of brood care. The authors compare it to several other arthropod groups in which some species carry their babies around during their first days. They also consider that the animal could have delayed its molting process to avoid discarding the babies with the exoskeleton.

But can we be sure that this is the case? The entomologist Ross Piper thinks differently. He compares the kites to uropodine mites, in which the juveniles (deutonymphs) attatch themselves to beetles by long stalks in order to be transported from one food source to another. As there are marine mites, that could be the case. He also points out that the kites are scattered through the body, which would make them unlikely to be offspring, as such a distribution would only hinder the parent’s mobility.

Briggs at al. responded to Piper’s critique arguing that marine mites have only recently evolved and that Aquilonifer is very different from a terrestrial beetle. It was most likely a bentonic species, crawling on the ocean’s floor, and not a swimmer, so that it would not be a very good dispersal agent.

What do you think of it? I find it difficult to choose one side. Piper’s comparison with mites is interesting, but only as a way to suggest a convergent evolution. I cannot see how the kites would have been really mites or even arachnids. Now the argument on the kites’ position on the body is a good point. No other group of animals carries their young attached to long stalks spread all over the body. Furthermore, how would the parent properly place the juveniles there? I can only see it as a plausible way if the host were the father and the mother crawled over him to stick the eggs in place. Additionally, couldn’t they be true phoronts  that were benefitial to the host? The little fellows could benefit by moving around on the big pal and reaching new food sources while giving protection or other advantage in return. And regarding the delay in molting, I cannot see any evidence that there was any delay. We don’t know how long the kites remained there and perhaps after molting they could simply leave their little houses and build new ones on the host’s new skeleton.

We may never know the truth, but we can keep exchanging ideas.

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References:

Briggs, D., Siveter, D., Siveter, D., Sutton, M., & Legg, D. (2016). Tiny individuals attached to a new Silurian arthropod suggest a unique mode of brood care Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113 (16), 4410-4415 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1600489113

Briggs, D., Siveter, D., Siveter, D., Sutton, M., & Legg, D. (2016). Reply to Piper: Aquilonifer’s kites are not mitesProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113 (24) DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1606265113

Piper, R. (2016). Offspring or phoronts? An alternative interpretation of the “kite-runner” fossil Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113 (24) DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1605909113

Switek, B. 2016. This bizarre creature flew its babies like kites. National Geographic News. Available at < http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/04/160404-bizarre-creature-flew-babies-kites-arthropod-fossils-science/ >. Access on July 07, 2016.

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