by Piter Kehoma Boll
This is the fourth and last part of this series of posts. See here part 1, part 2 and part 3.
I’m presenting here the 6 th and last class of animals: Vermes. It included basically anything that was neither a vertebrate nor an arthropod.
6. Vermes (worms)
Heart with one ventricle and one auricle; cold pus.
Jaws multiple, various.
Penises several in hermaphrodites, androgynous.
Senses: tentacles, head absent (rarely with eyes, no ears and nostrils).
Covering: sometimes calcareous or absent, if not spines.
Support: neither feet nor fins.
Vermes were classified according the form of the body in 5 orders: Intestina, Mollusca, Testacea, Lithophyta and Zoophyta.
6.1 Intestina (internal ones or intestines), simple, naked and without appendages: Gordius (horsehair worms), Furia (the legendary worm), Lumbricus (earthworms and lugworms), Ascaris (roundworms and pinworms), Fasciola (liver flukes), Hirudo (leeches), Myxine (hagfishes) and Teredo (shipworms).
6.2 Mollusca (soft ones),
Linnaeus’ heterogeneous order Intestina included (from left to right, top to bottom) the water horsehair worm (Gordius aquaticus), the legendary hell’s fury (Furia infernalis), the common earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris), the giant roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), the sheep liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica), the European medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis), the Atlantic hagfish (Myxine glutinosa), and the naval shipworm (Teredo navalis). Credits to Jiří Duchoň (horsehair worm), Michael Linnenbach (earthworm), Wikimedia user GlebK (leech), Arnstein Rønning (hagfish), Poi Australia [poi-australia.com.au] (shipworm).
simple, naked and with appendages: Limax
(land slugs), Doris
(doriid sea slugs), Tethys
(tethydid sea slugs), Nereis
(sea mice), Lernaea
(anchor worms), Priapus
(priapulid worms and anemones), Scyllaea
(scyllaeid sea slugs), Holothuria
(salps and man o’ wars), Triton
(possibly some sort of sea slug), Sepia
(octopuses, squids and cuttlefishes), Medusa
(sea urchins and sand dollars).
Among the animals that Linnaeus put under Mollusca are (from left to right, top to bottom) the leopard slug (Limax maximus), the warty dorid (Doris verrucosa), the fringed tethydid (Tethys leporina, now Tethys fimbria), the slender ragworm (Nereis pelagica), the sea mouse (Aphrodita aculeata), the common anchor worm (Lernaea cyprinacea), the cactus worm (Priapus humanus, now Priapulus caudatus), the sargassum nudibranch (Scyllaea pelagica), the Portuguese man o’ war (Holothuria physalis, now Physalia physalis), the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), the moon jellyfish (Medusa aurita, now Aurelia aurita), the common starfish (Asterias rubens), and the European edible sea urchin (Echinus esculentus). Credits to Marina Jacob (slug), Wikimedia user Seascapeza (dorid), Pino Bucca (tethydid), Alexander Semenov (ragworm), Michael Maggs (sea mouse), glsc.usgs.gov (anchor worm), Shunkina Ksenia (cactus worm), Universidad de Olviedo (sargassum nudibranch), Hans Hillewaert (cuttlefish, jellyfish and starfish), and Bengt Littorin (sea urchin).
6.3 Testacea (covered with a shell), simple, covered by a calcareous shelter: Chiton (chitons), Lepas (barnacles), Pholas (piddocks and angelwings), Myes (soft-shell clams), Solen (razor clams), Tellina (tellins), Cardium (cockles), Donax (wedge shells), Venus (venus clams), Spondylus (thorny oysters), Chama (jewel box shells), Arca (ark clams), Ostrea (true oysters), Anomia (saddle oysters), Mytilus (mussels), Pinna (pen shells), Argonauta (paper nautiluses), Nautilus (nautiluses), Conus (cone snails), Cypraea (cowries), Bulla (bubble shells), Voluta (volutes), Buccinum (true whelks), Strombus (true conchs), Murex (murex snails), Trochus (top snails), Turbo (turban snails), Helix (land snails), Nerita (nerites), Haliotis (abalones), Patella (limpets and brachiopods), Dentalium (tusk shells) and Serpula (serpulid worms and worm snails).
6.4 Lithophyta (stone plants)
Linnaeus’ diverse order Testacea included (from left to right, top to bottom): the West Indian green chiton (Chiton tuberculatus), the smooth gooseneck barnacle (Lepas anatifera), the common piddock (Pholas dactylus), the sand gaper (Myes arenaria, now Mya arenaria), the sheath razor (Solen vagina), the sunrise tellin (Tellina radiata), the great ribbed cockle (Cardium costatum), the abrupt wedge shell (Donax trunculus), the warty venus (Venus verrucosa), the spiny scallop (Spondylus gaederopus), the lazarus jewel box (Chama lazarus), the Noah’s Ark shell (Arca noae), the European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis), the European jingle shell (Anomia ephippium), the blue mussle (Mytilus edulis), the rough penshell (Pinna rudis), the greater argonaut (Argonauta argo), the chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius), the marbled cone (Conus marmoreus), the tiger cowry (Cypraea tigris), the Pacific bubble (Bulla ampulla), the music volute (Voluta musica), the common whelk (Buccinum undatum), the West Indian fighting conch (Strombus pugilis), the caltrop murex (Murex tribulus), the maculated top snail (Trochus maculatus), the tapestry turban (Turbo petholatus), the Roman snail (Helix pomatia), the bleeding tooth nerite (Nerita peloronta), Midas ear abalone (Haliotis midae), the Mediterranean limpet (Patella caerulea), the elephant tusk shell (Dentalium elephantinum), the sand worm snail (Serpula arenaria, now Thylacodes arenarius). Credits to James St. John (chiton), Ruben Vera (barnacle), Valter Jacinto (piddock), Oscar Bos [ecomare.nl] (sand gaper), Guido & Philippe Poppe [conchology.be] (razor), femorale.com (tellin, cockle, scallop, ark shell, jingle shell, bubble, fighting conch, nerite, abalone, tusk shell), Hans Hillewaert (wedge shell, venus, nautilus, whelk), Richard Parker (jewel box, marbled cone), Jan Johan ter Poorten (oyster), Wikimedia user Hectonichus (penshell, volute), Bernd Hoffmann (argonaut), Samuel Chow (cowry), Frédéric Ducarme (turban), H. Krisp (Roman snail), Wikimedia user Esculapio (limpet), Matthieu Sontag (worm snail).
, composite, growing on a solid base: Tubipora
(organ pipe corals), Millepora
(fire corals), Madrepora
(stone corals and Acetabularia
Three species listed by Linnaeus under Lithophyta (from left to right): organ pipe coral (Tubipora musica), sea ginger (Millepora alcicornis), zigzag coral (Madrepora oculata). Credits to Aaron Gustafson (pipe coral), Nick Hobgood (sea ginger), NOAA, U.S.’ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (zigzag coral).
6.5 Zoophyta (animal plants), growing like plants, with animated flowers: Isis (bamboo corals), Gorgonia (sea fans), Alcyonum (soft corals), Tubularia (pipe corals), Eschara (bryozoans and red algae), Corallina (coralline algae), Sertularia (bryozoans and hydrozoans), Hydra (hydras, cilliates and rotifers), Pennatula (sea pens), Taenia (tapeworms), Volvox (volvox algae and amLinebae).
Some species in Linnaeus’ order Zoophyta were (from left to right, top to bottom): the Venus sea fan (Gorgonia flabellum), the dead man’s fingers (Alcyonium digitatum), the oaten pipe hydroid (Tubullaria indivisa), the leafy bryozoan (Eschara foliacea, now Flustra foliacea), the coral weed (Corallina officinalis), the squirrel’s tail (Sertularia argentea), the grooved vorticella (Hydra convallaria, now Vorticella convallaria), the phosphorescent sea pen (Pennatula phosphorea), the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium), and the globe volvox (Volvox globator). Credits to Greg Grimes (sea fan), Bengt Littorin (dead man’s fingers), Bernard Picton (pipe hydroid, sea pen), biopix.com (bryozoan), Lovell and Libby Langstroth (coral weed), National Museums Northern Ireland (squirrel’s tail), D. J. Patterson (vorticella and volvox), Pulich Health Image Library (tapeworm).
Linnaeus may have made some mistakes while classifying mammals, birds, amphibians, fishes and insects, but nothing compares to the mess that his class Vermes was. It included animals from many different phyla and even red and green algae! Sometimes the same genus included both animals and plants.
And this concludes our presentation of animals in Linnaeus’ 1758 edition of Systema Naturae.
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Linnaeus. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae…
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