Tag Archives: predators

Friday Fellow: Bootlace Worm

by Piter Kehoma Boll

Long ago I presented some of the extremes of the animal world, including the largest, the cutest and the leggiest. Now it’s time to introduce another extreme: the longest. And this animal is so long that it seems impossible. Its name: Lineus longissimus, commonly known as bootlace worm. Its length: up to 55 meters.


An entangled bootlace worm. Photo by Bruno C. Vellutini.*

The bootlace worm is a member of the phylum Nemertea, commonly known as ribbon worms, and is found along the shores of the Atlantic Ocean in Europe. Most of the time, the worm is contracted, forming what looks like a heap of entagled wool threads that has no more than 30 cm from side to side. Although there are reports of specimens measuring more than 50 m, most of them are much shorter, with 30 m being already a very large size. Its width is of about 0.5 cm, so it is almost literally a long brown thread.


Lineus longissimus photographed in Norway. Photo by Guido Schmitz.**

As all nemerteans, the bootlace worm is a predator and hunts its prey between the rocks on sandy shores, stunning them with its long poisonous proboscis and then swallowing them whole. Soft and fragile, the bootlace worm has no way to protect itself from predators using any physical defense, but it is known to have a series of different toxins on its epidermis, including some similar to the deadly pufferfish poison tetrodotoxin (TTX) that is produced by bacteria living in the mucus that surrounds the body of the worm.

Now, before leaving, take a look at this video of a bootlace worm swallowing a polychaete:

– – –


Cantell, C.-E. (1976) Complementary description of the morphology of Lineus longissimus (Gunnerus, 1770) with some remarks on the cutis layer in heteronemertines. Zoologica Scripta 5:117–120. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-6409.1976.tb00688.x

Carroll, S.; McEvoy, E. G.; Gibson, R. (2003) The production of tetrodotoxin-like substances by nemertean worms in conjunction with bacteria. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 288: 51–63. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0981(02)00595-6

Gittenberger, A.; Schipper, C. (2008) Long live Linnaeus, Lineus longissimus (Gunnerus, 1770) (Vermes: Nemertea: Anopla: Heteronemertea: Lineidae), the longest animal worldwide and its relatives occurring in The Netherlands. Zoologische Mededelingen. Leiden 82: 59–63.

– – –

*Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

**Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


Leave a comment

Filed under Friday Fellow, worms

The warmer the dangerouser, at least if you are a caterpillar

by Piter Kehoma Boll

Scientist all over the world agree that species diversity is higher at the tropics than at polar regions, i.e., the closer you get to the equator, more species you will find. But apart from making food webs more entangled, does it increase the overall number of interactions that species experience? Afterall, despite the increase in species richness, the population size usually decreases. For example, while there are hundreds of different tree species in the Amazon forest, the number of individuals of each species is much lower than the number of individuals of a species in a temperate forest in Europe.

In order to test whether an increase in species richness would also mean an increase in biotic interactions, a group of ecologists all over the world engaged in a worldwide experiment using nothing else but small fake caterpillars made of plasticine. The small models were placed in different areas from the polar regions to the equatorial regions and the number of attacks that they suffered were counted and grouped according to the type of predator, which was usually identifiable based on the marks left on the models.


A fake caterpillar in Tai Po Kau, Hong Kong. Photo by Chung Yun Tak, extracted from ScienceDaily.

The results indicate that there is indeed an increase in predation rates towards the equator, as well as towards the sea level. Areas close to the poles or at high elevations have a smaller number of interactions. But even more interesting was the revelation that this change is really driven by small predators, especially arthropods such as ants. The rate of attacks by birds and mammals was fairly constant across the globe.

Such an evidence on the importance of arthropod predators at the tropics may make us reevaluate our ideas on the evolution of species in such places, as the main concern for small herbivores such as caterpillars in tropical forests may not be birds, but ants. And this means a completely different way to evolve defense strategies.

– – –


Roslin, T., Hardwick, B., Novotny, V., Petry, W., Andrew, N., Asmus, A., Barrio, I., Basset, Y., Boesing, A., Bonebrake, T., Cameron, E., Dáttilo, W., Donoso, D., Drozd, P., Gray, C., Hik, D., Hill, S., Hopkins, T., Huang, S., Koane, B., Laird-Hopkins, B., Laukkanen, L., Lewis, O., Milne, S., Mwesige, I., Nakamura, A., Nell, C., Nichols, E., Prokurat, A., Sam, K., Schmidt, N., Slade, A., Slade, V., Suchanková, A., Teder, T., van Nouhuys, S., Vandvik, V., Weissflog, A., Zhukovich, V., & Slade, E. (2017). Higher predation risk for insect prey at low latitudes and elevations Science, 356 (6339), 742-744 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaj1631

1 Comment

Filed under Ecology