Tag Archives: taxonomy

Greek Gods as genus names

by Piter Kehoma Boll

Although I’m not much of a taxonomist, I really love taxonomy and the way it can be used to add some sort of literary art to biology. So here I am going to present a list of genera named after some Greek gods. I hope you enjoy it!

Zeus_faber

The genus of fish Zeus is named after the king of the Greek gods. The photo shows the species Zeus faber. Photo by Wikimedia user Kleines.Opossum.*

Zeus_olympius

The genus of fungi Zeus is also named after the king of the Greek gods. The photo shows the species Zeus olympius. Photo by Rossen Aleksov.*

Lineus_ruber

Named after the Greek god of the sea, Poseidon used to be a genus of ribbon worms (nemerteans), but this name is currently a synonym of Lineus. The photo shows a specimen of Lineus ruber, formerly known as Poseidon ruber. Photo by Eduardo Zattara.**

Hades_noctula

The name of the god of the underworld, Hades, was given to a genus of butterflies. Here you can see an individual of the species Hades noctula. Photo by Dan Wade.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

The plant genus Hestia, with a single species, Hestia longifolia, was named after the Greek goddess of the hearth. Photo by Michael Lo.

800px-aphrodita_aculeata_28sea_mouse29

The sea mouse genus Aphrodita was so named after Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love, sex and beauty. The photo shows the species Aphrodita aculeata. Photo by Michael Maggs.*

hetul_u0

The fish genus Hephaestus, including the species Hephaestus tulliensis seen above, is named after the Greek god of fire and forgery. Photo by Glynn Aland.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

The greek goddess of wisdom, Athena, was honored in the owl genus Athene, which includes the borrowing owl Athene cunicularia seen above. Photo by flickr user travelwayoflife.***

Ares_mexicoensis

Ares, named after the Greek god of war, is a genus of fossil radiolarians that includes the species Ares mexicoensis shown above. Photo extracted from Whalen & Carter, 2002.

800px-dosinia_coerulea_003

Artemis, the greek Goddess of hunt, used to be the name of a genus of clams, but currently it is a synonym of Dosinia. The species seen above, Dosinia coerulea, used to be in the genus Artemis.

399px-nussatella1

The Greek god of travelers and messenger of the gods, Hermes, was honored in a genus of sea snails. Currently, it is regarded as a subgenus of the genus Conus and includes the species Conus (Hermes) nussatella seen above. Photo by Nick Zantop.*

 

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**Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.

***Creative Commons License
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New Species: September 11 to 20

by Piter Kehoma Boll

Here is a list of species described from September 11 to September 20. It certainly does not include all described species. Most information comes from the journals Mycokeys, Phytokeys, Zookeys, Phytotaxa, Zootaxa, International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, and Systematic and Applied Microbiology, as well as journals restricted to certain taxa.

petrolisthes-paulayi

Petrolisthes paulayi is a new crab described in the past 10 days.

SARs

Plants

Amoebozoans

Fungi

Sponges

Cnidaria

Flatworms

Annelids

Nematodes

Arachnids

Myriapods

Crustaceans

Hexapods

Cartilaginous fishes

Ray-finned fishes

Lissamphibians

Reptiles

Mammals

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New species: April last week

by Piter Kehoma Boll

Here is a list of species described from April 22 to April 30. It certainly does not include all described species. Most information comes from the journals Mycokeys, Phytokeys, Zookeys, Phytotaxa, Zootaxa and International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology.

Trigonopterus_chewbacca

Trigonopterus chewbacca Van Dam & Riedel, 2016 is a recently described wookie, I mean beetle.

Bacteria:

Plants:

Amoebozoans:

Fungi:

Flatworms:

Mollusks:

Arachnids:

Crustaceans:

Hexapods:

Ray-finned fishes:

Reptiles:

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The history of Systematics: Animals in Systema Naturae, 1758 (part 4)

by Piter Kehoma Boll

This is the fourth and last part of this series of posts. See here part 1, part 2 and part 3.

I’m presenting here the 6 th and last class of animals: Vermes. It included basically anything that was neither a vertebrate nor an arthropod.

6. Vermes (worms)

Heart with one ventricle and one auricle; cold pus.
Spiracles absent?
Jaws multiple, various.
Penises several in hermaphrodites, androgynous.
Senses: tentacles, head absent (rarely with eyes, no ears and nostrils).
Covering: sometimes calcareous or absent, if not spines.
Support: neither feet nor fins.

Vermes were classified according the form of the body in 5 orders: Intestina, Mollusca, Testacea, Lithophyta and Zoophyta.

6.1 Intestina (internal ones or intestines), simple, naked and without appendages: Gordius (horsehair worms), Furia (the legendary worm), Lumbricus (earthworms and lugworms), Ascaris (roundworms and pinworms), Fasciola (liver flukes), Hirudo (leeches), Myxine (hagfishes) and Teredo (shipworms).

Linnaeus’ heterogeneous order Intestina included (from left to right, top to bottom) the water horsehair worm (Gordius aquaticus), the legendary hell’s fury (Furia infernalis), the common earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris), the giant roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), the sheep liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica), the European medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis), the Atlantic hagfish (Myxine glutinosa), and the naval shipworm (Teredo navalis). Credits to Jiří Duchoň (horsehair worm), Michael Linnenbach (earthworm), Wikimedia user GlebK (leech), Arnstein Rønning (hagfish), Poi Australia [poi-australia.com.au] (shipworm).

Linnaeus’ heterogeneous order Intestina included (from left to right, top to bottom) the water horsehair worm (Gordius aquaticus), the legendary hell’s fury (Furia infernalis), the common earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris), the giant roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), the sheep liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica), the European medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis), the Atlantic hagfish (Myxine glutinosa), and the naval shipworm (Teredo navalis). Credits to Jiří Duchoň (horsehair worm), Michael Linnenbach (earthworm), Wikimedia user GlebK (leech), Arnstein Rønning (hagfish), Poi Australia [poi-australia.com.au] (shipworm).

 6.2 Mollusca (soft ones), simple, naked and with appendages: Limax (land slugs), Doris (doriid sea slugs), Tethys (tethydid sea slugs), Nereis (polychaetes), Aphrodita (sea mice), Lernaea (anchor worms), Priapus (priapulid worms and anemones), Scyllaea (scyllaeid sea slugs), Holothuria (salps and man o’ wars), Triton (possibly some sort of sea slug), Sepia (octopuses, squids and cuttlefishes), Medusa (jellyfishes), Asterias (starfishes), Echinus (sea urchins and sand dollars).

Among the animals that Linnaeus put under Mollusca are (from left to right, top to bottom) the leopard slug (Limax maximus), the warty dorid (Doris verrucosa), the fringed tethydid (Tethys leporina, now Tethys fimbria), the slender ragworm (Nereis pelagica), the sea mouse (Aphrodita aculeata), the common anchor worm (Lernaea cyprinacea), the cactus worm (Priapus humanus, now Priapulus caudatus), the sargassum nudibranch (Scyllaea pelagica), the Portuguese man o’ war (Holothuria physalis, now Physalia physalis), the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), the moon jellyfish (Medusa aurita, now Aurelia aurita), and the European edible sea urchin (Echinus esculentus).Credits to Marina Jacob (slug), Wikimedia user Seascapeza (dorid), Pino Bucca (tethydid), Alexander Semenov (ragworms), Michael Maggs (sea mouse), glsc.usgs.gov (anchor worm), Shunkina Ksenia (cactus worm), Universidad de Olviedo (sargassum nudibranch), Hans Hillewaert (cuttlefish, jellyfish and starfish), and Bengt Littorin (sea urchin).

Among the animals that Linnaeus put under Mollusca are (from left to right, top to bottom) the leopard slug (Limax maximus), the warty dorid (Doris verrucosa), the fringed tethydid (Tethys leporina, now Tethys fimbria), the slender ragworm (Nereis pelagica), the sea mouse (Aphrodita aculeata), the common anchor worm (Lernaea cyprinacea), the cactus worm (Priapus humanus, now Priapulus caudatus), the sargassum nudibranch (Scyllaea pelagica), the Portuguese man o’ war (Holothuria physalis, now Physalia physalis), the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), the moon jellyfish (Medusa aurita, now Aurelia aurita), the common starfish (Asterias rubens), and the European edible sea urchin (Echinus esculentus). Credits to Marina Jacob (slug), Wikimedia user Seascapeza (dorid), Pino Bucca (tethydid), Alexander Semenov (ragworm), Michael Maggs (sea mouse), glsc.usgs.gov (anchor worm), Shunkina Ksenia (cactus worm), Universidad de Olviedo (sargassum nudibranch), Hans Hillewaert (cuttlefish, jellyfish and starfish), and Bengt Littorin (sea urchin).

6.3 Testacea (covered with a shell), simple, covered by a calcareous shelter: Chiton (chitons), Lepas (barnacles), Pholas (piddocks and angelwings), Myes (soft-shell clams), Solen (razor clams), Tellina (tellins), Cardium (cockles), Donax (wedge shells), Venus (venus clams), Spondylus (thorny oysters), Chama (jewel box shells), Arca (ark clams), Ostrea (true oysters), Anomia (saddle oysters), Mytilus (mussels), Pinna (pen shells), Argonauta (paper nautiluses), Nautilus (nautiluses), Conus (cone snails), Cypraea (cowries), Bulla (bubble shells), Voluta (volutes), Buccinum (true whelks), Strombus (true conchs), Murex (murex snails), Trochus (top snails), Turbo (turban snails), Helix (land snails), Nerita (nerites), Haliotis (abalones), Patella (limpets and brachiopods), Dentalium (tusk shells) and Serpula (serpulid worms and worm snails).

Linnaeus’ diverse order Testacea included (from left to right, top to bottom): the West Indian green chiton (Chiton tuberculatus), the smooth gooseneck barnacle (Lepas anatifera), the common piddock (Pholas dactylus), the sand gaper (Myes arenaria, now Mya arenaria), the sheath razor (Solen vagina), the sunrise tellin (Tellina radiata), the great ribbed cockle (Cardium costatum), the abrupt wedge shell (Donax trunculus), the wary venus (Venus verrucosa), the spiny scallop (Spondylus gaederopus), the lazarus jewel box (Chama lazarus), the Noah’s Ark shell (Arca noae), the European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis), the European jingle shell (Anomia ephippium), the blue mussle (Mytilus edulis), the rough penshell (Pinna rudis), the greater argonaut (Argonauta argo), the chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius), the marbled cone (Conus marmoreus), the tiger cowry (Cypraea tigris), the Pacific bubble (Bulla ampulla), the music volute (Voluta musica), the common whelk (Buccinum undatum), the West Indian fighting conch (Strombus pugilis), the caltrop murex (Murex tribulus), maculated top snail (Trochus maculatus), the tapestry turban (Turbo petholatus), the Roman snail (Helix pomatia), the bleeding tooth nerite (Nerita peloronta), Midas ear abalone (Haliotis midae), the Mediterranean limpet (Patella caerulea), the elephant tusk shell (Dentalium elephantinum), the sand worm snail (Serpula arenaria, now Thylacodes arenarius). Credits to James St. John (chiton), Ruben Vera (barnacle), Valter Jacinto (piddock), Oscar Bos [ecomare.nl] (sand gaper), Guido & Philippe Poppe [conchology.be] (razor), femorale.com (tellin, cockle, scallop, ark shell, jingle shell, bubble, fighting conch, nerite, abalone, tusk shell), Hans Hillewaert (wedge shell, venus, nautilus, whelk), Richard Parker (jewel box, marbled cone), Jan Johan ter Poorten (oyster), Wikimedia user Hectonichus (penshell, volute), Bernd Hoffmann (argonaut), Samuel Chow (cowry), Frédéric Ducarme (turban), H. Krisp (Roman snail), Wikimedia user Esculapio (limpet), Matthieu Sontag (worm snail).

Linnaeus’ diverse order Testacea included (from left to right, top to bottom): the West Indian green chiton (Chiton tuberculatus), the smooth gooseneck barnacle (Lepas anatifera), the common piddock (Pholas dactylus), the sand gaper (Myes arenaria, now Mya arenaria), the sheath razor (Solen vagina), the sunrise tellin (Tellina radiata), the great ribbed cockle (Cardium costatum), the abrupt wedge shell (Donax trunculus), the warty venus (Venus verrucosa), the spiny scallop (Spondylus gaederopus), the lazarus jewel box (Chama lazarus), the Noah’s Ark shell (Arca noae), the European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis), the European jingle shell (Anomia ephippium), the blue mussle (Mytilus edulis), the rough penshell (Pinna rudis), the greater argonaut (Argonauta argo), the chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius), the marbled cone (Conus marmoreus), the tiger cowry (Cypraea tigris), the Pacific bubble (Bulla ampulla), the music volute (Voluta musica), the common whelk (Buccinum undatum), the West Indian fighting conch (Strombus pugilis), the caltrop murex (Murex tribulus), the maculated top snail (Trochus maculatus), the tapestry turban (Turbo petholatus), the Roman snail (Helix pomatia), the bleeding tooth nerite (Nerita peloronta), Midas ear abalone (Haliotis midae), the Mediterranean limpet (Patella caerulea), the elephant tusk shell (Dentalium elephantinum), the sand worm snail (Serpula arenaria, now Thylacodes arenarius). Credits to James St. John (chiton), Ruben Vera (barnacle), Valter Jacinto (piddock), Oscar Bos [ecomare.nl] (sand gaper), Guido & Philippe Poppe [conchology.be] (razor), femorale.com (tellin, cockle, scallop, ark shell, jingle shell, bubble, fighting conch, nerite, abalone, tusk shell), Hans Hillewaert (wedge shell, venus, nautilus, whelk), Richard Parker (jewel box, marbled cone), Jan Johan ter Poorten (oyster), Wikimedia user Hectonichus (penshell, volute), Bernd Hoffmann (argonaut), Samuel Chow (cowry), Frédéric Ducarme (turban), H. Krisp (Roman snail), Wikimedia user Esculapio (limpet), Matthieu Sontag (worm snail).

6.4 Lithophyta (stone plants), composite, growing on a solid base: Tubipora (organ pipe corals), Millepora (fire corals), Madrepora (stone corals and Acetabularia algae).

Three species listed by Linnaeus under Lithophyta (from left to right): organ pipe coral (Tubipora musica), sea ginger (Millepora alcicornis), zigzag coral (Madrepora oculata). Credits to Aaron Gustafson (pipe coral), Nick Hobgood (sea ginger), NOAA, U.S.’ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (zigzag coral).

Three species listed by Linnaeus under Lithophyta (from left to right): organ pipe coral (Tubipora musica), sea ginger (Millepora alcicornis), zigzag coral (Madrepora oculata). Credits to Aaron Gustafson (pipe coral), Nick Hobgood (sea ginger), NOAA, U.S.’ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (zigzag coral).

6.5 Zoophyta (animal plants), growing like plants, with animated flowers: Isis (bamboo corals), Gorgonia (sea fans), Alcyonum (soft corals), Tubularia (pipe corals), Eschara (bryozoans and red algae), Corallina (coralline algae), Sertularia (bryozoans and hydrozoans), Hydra (hydras, cilliates and rotifers), Pennatula (sea pens), Taenia (tapeworms), Volvox (volvox algae and amLinebae).

Some species in Linnaeus’ order Zoophyta were (from left to right, top to bottom): the Venus sea fan (Gorgonia flabellum), the dead man’s fingers (Alcyonium digitatum), the oaten pipe hydroid (Tubullaria indivisa), the leafy bryozoan (Eschara foliacea, now Flustra foliacea), the coral weed (Corallina officinalis), the squirrel’s tail (Sertularia argentea), the grooved vorticella (Hydra convallaria, now Vorticella convallaria), the phosphorescent sea pen (Pennatula phosphorea), the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium), and the globe volvox (Volvox globator). Credits to Greg Grimes (sea fan), Bengt Littorin (dead man’s fingers), Bernard Picton (pipe hydroid, sea pen), biopix.com (bryozoan), Lovell and Libby Langstroth (coral weed), National Museums Northern Ireland (squirrel’s tail), D. J. Patterson (vorticella and volvox), Pulich Health Image Library (tapeworm).

Some species in Linnaeus’ order Zoophyta were (from left to right, top to bottom): the Venus sea fan (Gorgonia flabellum), the dead man’s fingers (Alcyonium digitatum), the oaten pipe hydroid (Tubullaria indivisa), the leafy bryozoan (Eschara foliacea, now Flustra foliacea), the coral weed (Corallina officinalis), the squirrel’s tail (Sertularia argentea), the grooved vorticella (Hydra convallaria, now Vorticella convallaria), the phosphorescent sea pen (Pennatula phosphorea), the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium), and the globe volvox (Volvox globator). Credits to Greg Grimes (sea fan), Bengt Littorin (dead man’s fingers), Bernard Picton (pipe hydroid, sea pen), biopix.com (bryozoan), Lovell and Libby Langstroth (coral weed), National Museums Northern Ireland (squirrel’s tail), D. J. Patterson (vorticella and volvox), Pulich Health Image Library (tapeworm).

Linnaeus may have made some mistakes while classifying mammals, birds, amphibians, fishes and insects, but nothing compares to the mess that his class Vermes was. It included animals from many different phyla and even red and green algae! Sometimes the same genus included both animals and plants.

And this concludes our presentation of animals in Linnaeus’ 1758 edition of Systema Naturae.

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References:

Linnaeus. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae…

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Furia infernalis, a legendary parasite

by Piter Kehoma Boll

The year was 1728. The young naturalist Carl Linnaeus was exploring some marshes in the vicinities of Lund, Sweden, in search of botanical specimens. Suddenly he was wounded by something that felt like a sudden dart hitting the skin. Linnaeus deduced that the cause was a small slender worm that buried itself deeply and quickly in the flesh, so that it was impossible to try to extract it. The wound caused such a severe inflammation that his life became endangered. He recovered, of course, but was so deeply impressed by the experience that he gave a name to the supposed animal, Furia infernalis, the fury from Hell, and introduced it in his famous Systema Naturae.

Several naturalists continued to spread the idea of such an animal and several works regarding the creature were published by very respected cientists. The animal was described as being a greyish worm of the thickness of a hair and with black extremities that inhabits marshy places and darts itself upon the exposed parts of the bodies of humans and other animals that happen to be in its reach. The torments caused by the worm after quickly burying itself in the flesh were so excruciating that they throw the victim into a state of madness and wild rage.

The Furia infernalis was supposed to look somewhat like this.

The Furia infernalis was supposed to look somewhat like this.

The idea of the existence of the creature soon became settled in people’s minds. The animal was supposed to live only in eastern Scandinavia and perhaps Russia and the Baltic contries, but did not happen further to the south nor in Norway. Even some medical treatments to cure the infection were published.

An older, wiser and more experienced Linnaeus, many years later, altered his opinion on the creature. He admitted that he possibly was drawn into error regarding the creature’s nature or even existence and considered it to be entirely fictional. However, it was too late. New cases of attacks continued to appear and the worm seemed to be a special danger to reindeer. Accounts regarding entire herds of reindeer being killed by the creature were so frequent that the purchase of animals from Sweden was entirely forbidden during the periods in which the disease was frequently reported.

Despite all the alarm, no one ever was able to present a specimen of the creature in order to validate its existence. The problem with the deer were later discovered to be caused by cestode larvae in the brain, i.e., they were afflicted by neurocysticercosis.

Today Furia infernalis is considered to be an entirely fictional animal belonging to the realm of Cryptozoology. But I wonder what had stung Linnaeus in that marsh three centuries ago.

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References:

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae…

Brooke, A. C. 1827. On the Furia infernalis. Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal3: 39-43.

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The history of Systematics: Animals in Systema Naturae, 1758 (part 3)

by Piter Kehoma Boll

This is the third part of this series of posts. See here part 1part 2 and part 4.

In this post I’ll present a single class: Insecta. At that time, however, Insecta included not only what we call insects today, but all arthropods.

5. Insecta (Insects)

Heart with one ventricle and one auricle; cold pus.
Spiracles: pores at the sides of the body.
Jaws lateral.
Penises entering.
Senses: tongue, eyes, antennae in head without brain (no ears and nostrils).
Covering: armored sustaining bony skin.
Support: feet, in some wings.

Insects were classified according to the number and aspect of the wings and included 7 orders: Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, Neuroptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Aptera.

5.1 Coleoptera (case wings), with four wings, the forewings fully hardened: Scarabeus (scarab beetles), Dermestes (larder beetles), Hister (clown beetles), Attelabus (leaf-rolling weevils), Curculio (true weevils), Silpha (carrion beetles), Coccinella (ladybugs), Cassida (tortoise beetles), Chrysomela (leaf beetles), Meloe (blister beetles), Tenebrio (darkling beetles), Mordella (tumbling flower beetles), Staphylinus (rove beetles), Cerambyx (longhorn beetles), Leptura (flower longhorn beetles), Cantharis (soldier beetles, glowworms), Elater (click beetles), Cicindela (tiger beetles), Buprestis (jewel beetles), Dytiscus (diving beetles), Carabus (ground beetles), Necydalis (wasp beetles), Forficula (earwigs), Blatta (cockroaches), Gryllus (crickets, locusts, grasshoppers, mantises, stick bugs).

1758Linnaeus_coleoptera

Species grouped by Linnaeus under Coleoptera (from left to right, top to bottom): sacred scarab (Scarabaeus sacer), larder beetle (Dermestes lardarius), four-spotted clown beetle (Hister quadrimaculatus), hazel-leaf roller weevil (Attelabus coryli, currently Apoderus coryli), nut weevil (Curculio nucum), dark carrion beetle (Silpha obscura), seven-spotted ladybug (Coccinella septempunctata), green tortoise beetle (Cassida viridis), red poplar leaf beetle (Chrysomela populi), black blister beetle (Meloe proscarabaeus), mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor), pointed tumbling flower beetle (Mordella aculeata), red-winged rove beetle (Staphylinus erythropterus), great capricorn beetle (Cerambyx cerdo), banded flower longhorn beetle (Leptura quadrifasciata), dull soldier beetle (Cantharis fusca), red click beetle (Elater ferrugineus), green tiger beetle (Cicindela campestris), eight-spotted jewel beetle (Buprestis octoguttata), broad diving beetle (Dytiscus latissimus), hard ground beetle (Carabus coriaceus), greater wasp beetle (Necydalis major), European earwig (Forficula auricularia), common cockroach (Blatta orientalis), and common field cricket (Gryllus campestris). Credits to Wikimedia user Sarefo (scarab), Guttorm Flatabø (larder beetle), Didier Descouens (clown beetle, tumbling flower beetle), entomart [www.entomart.be] (weevils, tortoise beetle), Dominik Stodulski (ladybug), Wikimedia user Quartl (leaf beetle, flower longhorn beetle), Václav Hanzlík (rove beetle), Franz Xaver (capricorn beetle), James K. Lindsey (soldier beetle), Stanislav Krejčik (click beetle), Olaf Leillinger (tiger beetle), Biopix [www.biopix.com] (diving beetle), Gyorgy Csoka (wasp beetle), Miroslav Deml (earwig), K Schneider (cockroach), Gilles San Martin (cricket).

5.2 Hemiptera (half wings): with four wings, the forewings half-hardened: Cicada (cicadas),  Notonecta (backswimmers), Nepa (water scorpions), Cimex (shield bugs and bedbugs), Aphis (aphids), Chermes (wooly aphids), Coccus (scale insects), Thrips (thrips).

Linnaeus’ Hemiptera included the following species (from left to right, top to bottom): ash cicada (Cicada orni), common backswimmer (Notonecta glauca), common water scorpion (Nepa cinerea), common bedbug (Cimex lectularius), elder aphid (Aphis sambuci), pineapple gall aldegid (Chermes abietis, currently Adelges abietis), brown soft scale (Coccus hesperidum), dandelion thrips (Thrips physapus). Credits to Wikimedia user Hectonichus (cicada), Holger Gröschl (backswimmer), Wikimedia user XenonX3 (water scorpion), James K. Lindsey (aphid), Magne Flåten (aldegid), Whitney Cranshaw (soft scale), thrips.w.interiowo.pl (thrips).

Linnaeus’ Hemiptera included the following species (from left to right, top to bottom): ash cicada (Cicada orni), common backswimmer (Notonecta glauca), common water scorpion (Nepa cinerea), common bedbug (Cimex lectularius), elder aphid (Aphis sambuci), pineapple gall aldegid (Chermes abietis, currently Adelges abietis), brown soft scale (Coccus hesperidum), and dandelion thrips (Thrips physapus). Credits to Wikimedia user Hectonichus (cicada), Holger Gröschl (backswimmer), Wikimedia user XenonX3 (water scorpion), James K. Lindsey (aphid), Magne Flåten (aldegid), Whitney Cranshaw (soft scale), thrips.w.interiowo.pl (thrips).

5.3 Lepidoptera (scale wings), with four scaly wings: Papilio (butterflies), Phalaena (moths), Sphinx (hawk moths).

Among the species put by Linnaeus under Lepidoptera, there were (from left to right, top to bottom): paris peacock (Papilio paris), gothic moth (Phalaena typical, now Naenia typical), privet hawk moth (Sphinx ligustri). Creditos to Wikimedia user Peellden (paris peacock), Danny Chapman (gothic moth), Wikimedia user Jdiemer (hawk moth).

Among the species put by Linnaeus under Lepidoptera, there were (from left to right): paris peacock (Papilio paris), gothic moth (Phalaena typica, now Naenia typica), and privet hawk moth (Sphinx ligustri). Credits to Wikimedia user Peellden (paris peacock), Danny Chapman (gothic moth), Wikimedia user Jdiemer (hawk moth).

5.4 Neuroptera (veined wings), with four membranous wings and an unarmed tail: Libellula (dragonflies and damselflies), Ephemera (mayflies), Phryganea (caddislies), Hemerobius (lacewings, antlions, alderflies), Panorpa (scorpionflies), Raphidia (snakeflies).

Linnaeus order Neuroptera included (from left to right, top to bottom) the four-spotted chaser (Libellula quadrimaculata), common mayfly (Ephemera vulgata), greater caddisly (Phryganea grandis), common brown lacewing (Hemerobius humulinus), common scorpionfly (Panorpa communis), common snakefly (Raphidia ophiopsis). Credits to Wikimedia user Bj.schoenmakers (mayfly), Donald Hobern (caddisfly), Wikimedia user AfroBrazilian (lacewing), André Karwath (scorpionfly).

Linnaeus order Neuroptera included (from left to right, top to bottom) the four-spotted chaser (Libellula quadrimaculata), common mayfly (Ephemera vulgata), greater caddisly (Phryganea grandis), common brown lacewing (Hemerobius humulinus), common scorpionfly (Panorpa communis), and common snakefly (Raphidia ophiopsis). Credits to Wikimedia user Bj.schoenmakers (mayfly), Donald Hobern (caddisfly), Wikimedia user AfroBrazilian (lacewing), André Karwath (scorpionfly).

5.5 Hymenoptera (membranous wings), with four membranous wings and an armed tail: Cynips (gall wasps), Tenthredo (sawflies), Ichneumon (parasitoid wasps), Sphex (digger wasps and potter wasps), Vespa (hornets and wasps), Apis (bees), Formica (ants), Mutilla (velvet ants).

Linnaeus order Neuroptera included (from left to right, top to bottom) the common gall wasp (Cynips quercusfolii), figwort sawfly (Tenthredo scrophulariae), common parasitoid wasp (Ichneumon sarcitorius), South American potter wasp (Sphex argillacea, now Zeta argillaceum), European hornet (Vespa crabro), Western honey bee (Apis mellifera), red wood ant (Formica rufa), European velvet ant (Mutilla europaea). Credits to Wikimedia user Wofl (gall wasp), James K. Lindsey (sawfly, parasitoid wasp), Sean McCann (potter wasp), Wikipedia user Flugwapsch62 (hornet), Böhringer Friedrich (bee), Adam Opio¬ła (ant), Valter Jacinto (velvet ant).

Linnaeus order Hymenoptera included (from left to right, top to bottom) the common gall wasp (Cynips quercusfolii), figwort sawfly (Tenthredo scrophulariae), common parasitoid wasp (Ichneumon sarcitorius), South American potter wasp (Sphex argillacea, now Zeta argillaceum), European hornet (Vespa crabro), Western honey bee (Apis mellifera), red wood ant (Formica rufa), and European velvet ant (Mutilla europaea). Credits to Wikimedia user Wofl (gall wasp), James K. Lindsey (sawfly, parasitoid wasp), Sean McCann (potter wasp), Wikimedia user Flugwapsch62 (hornet), Böhringer Friedrich (bee), Adam Opioła (ant), Valter Jacinto (velvet ant).

5.6 Diptera (two wings), with two wings: Oestrus (botflies), Tipula (craneflies and midges), Musca (houseflies, hoverflies, blowflies, snipe flies), Tabanus (horse-flies), Culex (mosquitoes), Empis (dance flies), Conops (thick-headed flies, hornflies, stable flies), Asilus (robber flies), Bombylius (beeflies), Hippobosca (louse flies).

In Diptera, Linnaeus included the sheep botly (Oestrus ovis), garden cranefly (Tipula hortorum), common housefly (Musca domestica), pale giant horse-fly (Tabanus bovinus), common house mosquito (Culex pipiens), northern dance fly (Empis borealis), yellow thick-headed fly (Conops flavipes), hornet robberfly (Asilus crabroniformis), large beefly (Bombylius major), forest fly (Hippobosca equina). Credits to picotverd user from diptera.info (botfly), James K. Lindsey (cranefly, horse-fly, dance fly), Kamran Iftikhar (housefly), David Barillet-Portal (mosquito), Martin Harvey (robberfly), Richard Bartz (beefly), Wikimedia user Janswart (forest fly).

In Diptera, Linnaeus included the sheep botly (Oestrus ovis), garden cranefly (Tipula hortorum), common housefly (Musca domestica), pale giant horse-fly (Tabanus bovinus), common house mosquito (Culex pipiens), northern dance fly (Empis borealis), yellow thick-headed fly (Conops flavipes), hornet robberfly (Asilus crabroniformis), large beefly (Bombylius major), and forest fly (Hippobosca equina). Credits to picotverd user from diptera.info (botfly), James K. Lindsey (cranefly, horse-fly, dance fly), Kamran Iftikhar (housefly), David Barillet-Portal (mosquito), Martin Harvey (robberfly), Richard Bartz (beefly), Wikimedia user Janswart (forest fly).

5.7 Aptera (no wings), without wings: Lepisma (silverfishes), Podura (springtails), Termes (termites and barklice), Pediculus (lice), Pulex (fleas), Acarus (mites and ticks), Phalangium (harvestmen, whip spider and whip scorpions), Aranea (spiders), Scorpio (scorpions), Cancer (crabs, lobsters, shrimp), Monoculus (tadpole shrimps, water fleas, horseshoe crabs), Oniscus (woodlice), Scolopendra (centipedes), Julus (milipedes).

The messy order Aptera included (from left to right, top to bottom) the silverfish (Lepisma saccharina), the water sprintail (Podura aquatic), the larger pale trogiid (Termes pulsatorium, now Trogium pulsatorium), the head louse (Pediculus humanus), the human flea (Pulex irritans), the flour mite (Acarus siro), the common harvestman (Phalangium opilio), the angular garden spider (Aranea angulata, now Araneus angulatus), the large clawed scorpion (Scorpio maurus), the brown crab (Cancer pagurus), the common tadpole shrimp (Monoculus apus, now Lepidurus apus), the common woodlouse (Oniscus asellus), the Amazonian giant centipede (Scolopendra gigantea), common millipede (Julus terrestris). Credits to Christian Fischer (silverfish, springtail), Josef Reischig (louse), Michael Wunderli (flea), Joel Mills (mite), Didier Descouens (harvestman), Thomas Kraft (spider), Guy Haimovitch (scorpion), Hans Hillewaert (crab), Christian Fischer (tadpole shrimp), Fritz Geller-Grimm (woodlouse), Katka Nemčoková (centipede), Carmen Juaréz/Pedro do Rego (millipede).

The messy order Aptera included (from left to right, top to bottom) the silverfish (Lepisma saccharina), the water springtail (Podura aquatica), the larger pale trogiid (Termes pulsatorium, now Trogium pulsatorium), the head louse (Pediculus humanus), the human flea (Pulex irritans), the flour mite (Acarus siro), the common harvestman (Phalangium opilio), the angular garden spider (Aranea angulata, now Araneus angulatus), the large clawed scorpion (Scorpio maurus), the brown crab (Cancer pagurus), the common tadpole shrimp (Monoculus apus, now Lepidurus apus), the common woodlouse (Oniscus asellus), the Amazonian giant centipede (Scolopendra gigantea), and the common millipede (Julus terrestris). Credits to Christian Fischer (silverfish, springtail), Josef Reischig (louse), Michael Wunderli (flea), Joel Mills (mite), Didier Descouens (harvestman), Thomas Kraft (spider), Guy Haimovitch (scorpion), Hans Hillewaert (crab), Christian Fischer (tadpole shrimp), Fritz Geller-Grimm (woodlouse), Katka Nemčoková (centipede), Carmen Juaréz/Pedro do Rego (millipede).

As one can notice, Linnaeus was pretty good at classifying hymenopterans, dipterans and lepidopterans. His orders Coleoptera and Hemiptera were not that bad too. Neuroptera was a little messy, but nothing compares to Aptera, where he put everything without wings, from silverfish to spiders, crabs and millipedes! It’s amazing how accurate he was with certain groups, but a complete disaster with others.

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References:

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae…

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The history of Systematics: Animals in Systema Naturae, 1758 (part 2)

by Piter Kehoma Boll

This post is a continuation of The history of Systematics: Animals in Systema Naturae, 1758 (part 1). So be sure to read that first!

Here I’ll talk about two other classes in Linnaeus’ classification: Amphibia and Pisces.

3. Amphibia (Amphibians)

Heart with one ventricle and one auricle; cold, red blood.
Lungs breathing arbitrarily.
Jaw incumbent.
Penis double. Eggs mostly membranaceous.
Senses: tongue, nostrils, eyes, many ears.
Covering: coriaceous, nude.
Support: various, in some none.

Amphibians  were classified according to the anatomy of the limbs and included 3 orders: Reptiles, Serpentes, and Nantes. They are shown below with their respective genera.

3.1 Reptiles (crawlers), having four feet Testudo (turtles and tortoises), Draco (gliding lizards), Lacerta (lizards, salamanders and crocodilians), Rana (frogs and toads).

Four species that Linnaeus put under Reptiles: spur-thighed tortoise (

Four species that Linnaeus put under Reptiles (from left to right): spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca), flying lizard (Draco volans), sand lizard (Lacerta agilis), and common frog (Rana temporaria). Credits to Gisella D. (tortoise), Charles J. Sharp (flying lizard), Krzysztof Mizera (sand lizard), and Monika Betley (frog).

3.2 Serpentes (creepers), without limbs: Crotalus (rattlesnakes), Boa (boas), Coluber (racers, vipers, cobras, pythons), Anguis (slow worms, worm snakes and sand boas), Amphisbaena (worm lizards), Caecilia (caecilians).

Six species put but Linnaeus under Serpentes: timber rattlesnake (

Six species put by Linnaeus under Serpentes (from left to right, top to bottom): timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus), Boa constrictor, black racer (Coluber constrictor), slow worm (Anguis fragilis), red worm lizard (Amphisbaena alba), and bearded caecilian (Caecilia tentaculata). Credits to Pavel Ševela (boa constrictor), Wikimedia user Marek_bydg (slow worm), Diogo B. Provete (worm lizard)**, and bio-scene.org (bearded cacecilian).

3.2 Nantes (swimmers), having fins: Petromyzon (lampreys), Raja (rays), Squalus (sharks), Chimaera (ratfishes), Lophius (anglerfishes), and Acipenser (sturgeons).

The order Nantes comprised, among others, the sea lamprey (

The order Nantes comprised, among others (from left to right, top to bottom), the sea lamprey (Petrozymon marinus), the thornback ray (Raja clavata), the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), the rabbitfish (Chimaera monstrosa), the angler (Lophius piscatorius), and the sturgeon (Acipenser sturio). Credits to Wikimedia user Fungus Guy (lamprey), Wikimedia user Citron (rabbitfish), Wikimedia user Meocrisis (angler), and flickr user Aah-Yeah (sturgeon).

4. Pisces (Fish)

Heart with one ventricle and one auricle; cold red blood.
Gills external, compressed.
Jaw incumbent.
Penis absent. Eggs without albumin.
Senses: tongue, nostrils (?), eyes (no ears).
Covering: imbricate scales.
Support: fins.

Fish included 5 orders, which were defined mainly by the position of the ventral limbs in relation to the pectoral fins: Apodes, Jugulares, Thoracici, Abdominales and Branchiostegi.

4.1 Apodes (footless ones), without ventral fins: Muraena (eels), Gymnotus (knifefishes), Trichiurus (cutlassfishes), Anarhichas (wolffishes), Ammodytes (sand eels), Stromateus (butterfishes), Xiphias (swordfishes).

The Mediterranean muray (

(From left to right, top to bottom) The Mediterranean muray (Muraena helena), banded knifefish (Gymnotus carapo), largehead hairtail (Trichiurus lepturus), seawolf (Anarhichas lupus), lesser sand eel (Ammodytes tobianus), blue butterfish (Stromateus fiatola), and swordfish (Xiphias gladius) were classified as Apodes. Credits to Tato Grasso (muray), segrestfarms.com (knifefish), Daizu Azuma (hairfail), Wikimedia user Haplochromis (seawolf), and Muhammad Moazzam Khan (swordfish).

4.2 Jugulares (jugular ones), ventral fins in front of the pectoral fins: Callionymus (dragonets and flatheads), Uranoscopus (stargazers), Trachinus (weevers), Gadus (cods, haddocks, lings, etc), Blennius (blennies), Ophidion (cusk-eels, gunnels, bandfishes).

Six species included in the order Jugulares (from left to right, top to bottom): common dragonet (

Six species included in the order Jugulares (from left to right, top to bottom): common dragonet (Callionymus lyra), Atlantic stargazer (Uranoscopus scaber), greater weever (Trachinus draco), Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), butterfly blenny (Blennius ocellaris), snake blenny (Ophidion barbatum). Credits to Hans Hillewaert (dragonet), Roberto Pillon (stargazer), Hans-Petter Fjeld (cod, CC-BY-SA), Gianni Neto (blenny), Stefano Guerrieri (snake blenny).

4.3 Thoracici (thoracic ones), ventral fins below the pectoral fins: Cyclopterus (lumpfishes), Echeneis (remoras), Coryphaena (dolphinfishes and razorfishes), Gobius (gobies), Cottus (sculpins and hooknoses), Scorpaena (scorpionfishes), Zeus (John dories, lookdowns and boar fishes), Pleuronectes (flatfishes), Chaetodon (butterflyfishes, angelfishes, surgeons, etc), Sparus (breams, porgies, picarels, etc), Labrus (wrasses, parrotfishes, etc), Sciaena (snappers and croakers), Perca (perch, groupers, tilapias, etc), Gasterosteus (sticklebacks, lionfishes, pilot fishes, etc), Scomber (mackerels and tunas), Mullus (goatfishes), and Trigla (gurnards).

Sixteen species classified by Linnaeus as Thoracici (from left to right, top to bottom): lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus), live sharksucker (Echeneis naucrates), pompano dolphinfish (Coryphaena equiselis), black goby (Gobius niger), European bullhead (Cottus gobio), bigscale scorpionfish (Scorpaena scrofa), John Dory (Zeus faber), European plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), banded butterflyfish (Chaetodon striatus), gilt-head bream (Sparus aurata), brown wrasse (Labrus merula), 

Seveteen species classified by Linnaeus as Thoracici (from left to right, top to bottom): lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus), live sharksucker (Echeneis naucrates), pompano dolphinfish (Coryphaena equiselis), black goby (Gobius niger), European bullhead (Cottus gobio), bigscale scorpionfish (Scorpaena scrofa), John Dory (Zeus faber), European plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), banded butterflyfish (Chaetodon striatus), gilt-head bream (Sparus aurata), brown wrasse (Labrus merula), brown meagre (Sciaena umbra), European perch (Perca fluviatilis), three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), Atlantic mackereil (Scomber scombrus), bluntsnouted mullet (Mullus barbatus), and piper gurnard (Trigla lyra). Credits to Simon Pierre Barrette (lumpsucker), Wikimedia user Wusel007 (sharksucker), NOAA/FPIR Observer Program (dolphinfish), Stefano Guerrieri (goby and wrasse), Hans Hillewaert (bullhead), Wikimedia user Elapied (scorpionfish), Wikimedia user Kleines.Opossum (john dory), Wikimedia user Gargolla (plaice), Bernard E. Picton (butterflyfish), Roberto Pillon (bream and mullet), Albert Kok (meagre), Wikimedia user Dgp.martin (perch), Wikimedia user JaySo83 (stickleback), NOAA (mackerel), and Massimiliano Marcelli (gurnard).

4.4 Abdominales (abdominal ones), ventral fins behind the pectoral fins: Cobitis (loaches and four-eyed fishes), Silurus (catfishes), Loricaria (suckermouth catfishes), Salmo (salmon, trouts, smelts, etc), Fistularia (cornetfishes), Esox (pikes, gars, barracudas, etc), Argentina (herring smelts), Atherina (silversides), Mugil (mullets), Exocoetus (flying fishes), Polynemus (threadfins), Clupea (herring, anchovies, hatchetfishes, etc), and Cyprinus (carps, goldfishes, breams, etc).

Thirteen species that were part of the order Abdominales:

Thirteen species that were part of the order Abdominales (from left to right, top to bottom): spined loach (Cobitis taenia), Wels catfish (Silurus glanis), suckermouth catfish (Loricaria cataphracta), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), bluespotted cornetfish (Fistularia tabacaria), northern pike (Esox lucius), European argentine (Argentina sphyraena), Mediterranean sand smelt (Atherina hepsetus), flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus), Tropical two-winged flying fish (Exocoetus volitans), paradise threadfin (Polynemus paradiseus), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), and  common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Credits to J. C. Harf (loach), Dieter Florian (catfish), Hans-Petter Fjeld (salmon), Wikimedia user Jik jik (pike), Roberto Pillon (sand smelt and mullet), Wikimedia user Kolisberg (flying fish), segrestfarms.com (threadfin), and Wikimedia user Kils (herring).

4.5 Branchiostegi, lacking opercula or branchial fins: Mormyrus (elephantfishes), Balistes (triggerfishes and snipefishes), Ostracion (boxfishes, cowfishes, etc), Tetraodon (pufferfishes and sunfishes), Diodon (porcupine fishes), Centriscus (shrimpfishes), Syngnathus (pipefishes and seahorses), and Pegasus (seamoths).

The eight species shown above were all part of the order Branchiostegi (from left to right, top to bottom):

The eight species shown above were all part of the order Branchiostegi (from left to right, top to bottom): Mormyrus caschive, queen triggerfish (Balistes vetula), yellow boxfish (Ostracion cubicus), Fahaka pufferfish (Tetraodon lineatus), spot-fin porcupinefish (Diodon hystrix), grooved shrimpfish (Centriscus scutatus), common pipefish (Syngnathus acus), and longtail seamoth (Pegasus volitans). Credits to Johny Jensen (Mormyrus), James St. John (triggerfish), flickr user zsispeo (boxfish), Reserva de la Biosfera Cabildo de Gran Canaria (porcupinefish), John E. Randall (shrimpfish and seamoth), and Hans Hillewaert (pipefish).

As you can notice, Linnaeus’ classification of amphibians and fish was even worse than that of mammals and birds, especially the classification of amphibians. It is clear that Linnaeus hated what he called amphibians more than anything. He describes them as the worst creatures, having a horrible appearence, and thanking God for not creating many of them.

Probably one of the most bizarre things is that Linnaeus put lizards and crocodiles in the same genus! Well, if he hated “amphibians” so much, I think he was not very familiar with their anatomy.

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Reference:

Linnaeus, Carl. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Nature…

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The history of Systematics: Animals in Systema Naturae, 1758 (part 1)

by Piter Kehoma Boll

A long time ago, I wrote a post on how the classification of living beings in kingdoms have evolved since Linnaeus until the modern days. It was a brief introduction, not intended to detail it at levels below kingdom. Here, I intend to start a new series of posts where I’ll present the classification of life forms in lower levels. Each post will present a more recent classification compared to the previous one, so that you can see how things evolved through time.

So, let’s start again with Linnaeus, more precisely with the 10th Edition of his work Systema Naturae. This edition is the starting point of zoological nomenclature and was published in 1758.

In the Systema Naturae, Linnaeus divided “nature” in three kingdoms: Regnum Animale (animal kingdom), Regnum Vegetabile (vegetable kingdom) and Regnum Lapideum (mineral kingdom). As minerals are not lifeforms, we’ll not deal with it here, since this classification does not make sense at all for rocks. Maybe I’ll talk about it later in another post.

At first I would present the whole system here, but the post would become too big. Therefore, I decided to present animals and plants separately, but again there was too much to talk on animals. So, this post will deal only with mammals and birds. Other groups will be presented in subsequent posts. See amphibians and fish here, insects here and worms here.

Animals were defined by Linnaeus as having an organized, living and sentient body and being able to move freely. They were classified in six classes: Mammalia, Aves, Amphibia, Pisces, Insecta and Vermes.

1. Mammalia (Mammals) 

Heart with two auricles and two ventricles; warm red blood.
Lungs breathing reciprocally.
Jaw incumbent, covered.
Penis entering in viviparous, lactating.
Senses: tongue, nostrils, touch, eyes, ears.
Covering: hairs, few for the Indic ones, fewest for the aquatic ones.
Support: four feet, except for the aquatic ones, in which the posterior feet coalesced with the tail.

Mammals included 8 orders that were defined mainly on the arrangement of teeth: Primates, Bruta, Ferae, Bestiae, Glires, Pecora, Belluae, and Cete. They are shown below with their respective genera.

1.1 Primates (prime ones), having four parallel upper incisives and solitary tusks: Homo (humans), Simia (all apes and monkeys), Lemur (lemurs), Vespertilio (bats)

Primates included four genera, Homo, Simia, Lemur and Vespertillio. Pictures by

Four species listed by Linnaeus under Primates (left to right): human (Homo sapiens), Barbary macaque (Simia sylvanus, now Macaca sylvanus), ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) and parti-colored bat (Vespertilio murinus). Credits of the photos to Pawel Ryszawa (macaque), Wikimedia Commons user Permak (lemur), and Markus Nolf (bat).

1.2 Bruta (brutes), absent incisives on either the upper or the lower jaw: Elephas (elephants), Trichechus (manatees), Bradypus (sloths), Myrmecophaga (anteaters), Manis (pangolins)

The order Bruta included

The order Bruta included (from left to right) the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), the pale-throated sloth (Bradypus tridactylus), the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) and the Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla). Credits of the photos to Wikimedia Commons user Ji-Ellle (elephant), U. S. Department of the Interior (manatee), Fernando Flores (sloth), Graham Hughes (anteater), and Wikimedia Commons user nachbarnebenan (pangolin).

1.3 Ferae (ferocious beasts) six sharp upper incisives and solitary tusks, sharp claws: Phoca (seals), Canis (dogs, foxes and hyaenas), Felis (cats), Viverra (mongooses, civets and skunks), Mustela (weasels and otters), Ursus (bears, badgers and raccoons).

Linnaeus' Ferae included the common seal (Phoca

Linnaeus’ Ferae included (from left to right, top to bottom) the common seal (Phoca vitulina), the wolf (Canis lupus), the domestic cat (Felis catus, now Felis sylvestris catus), the large Indian civet (Viverra zibetha), the European polecat (Mustela putorius) and the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos). Credits to Maximilian Narr (seal), Gunnar Ries (wolf), Michal Osmenda (cat), flickr user tontravel (civet), Peter Trimming (polecat), and Steve Hillebrand (bear).

1.4 Bestiae (beasts) sharp upper teeth of indeterminate number, always more than one tusk on each side: Sus (pigs), Dasypus (armadillos), Erinaceus (hedgehogs), Talpa (moles), Sorex (shrews and moles), Didelphis (opossums)

Some species in the order Bestiae: wild boar (

Some species in the order Bestiae (left to right, top to bottom): wild boar (Sus scrofa), nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), West-European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), European mole (Talpa europaea), common shrew (Sorex araneus), and common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis). Credits to Henri Bergius (boar), Hans Stieglitz (armadillo), Jörg Hempel (hedgehog), Mick E. Talbot (mole), Agnieszka Kloch (shrew), and Juan Tello (opossum).

1.5 Glires (dormice) two upper and lower incisives, no tusks: Rhinoceros (rhinoceroses), Hystrix (porcupines), Lepus (hares and rabbits), Castor (beavers and desmands), Mus (mice, rats, hamsters, marmots, etc), Sciurus (squirrels)

Six species that Linnaeus classified as Glires (from left to right, top to bottom): Indian rhinoceros (

Six species that Linnaeus classified as Glires (from left to right, top to bottom): Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), African crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata), mountain hare (Lepus timidus), Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber), house mouse (Mus musculus), red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris). Credits to Wikimedia Commons user FisherQueen (rhinoceros), Wikimedia Commons user Quartl (porcupine), Alan Wolfe (hare), Klaudiusz Muchowski (beaver), Wikimedia Commons user 4028mdk09 (mouse), and Hernán de Angelis (squirrel).

1.6 Pecora (cattle) many lower incisives, no upper incisives,  bifid hooves and four-chambered stomach: Camelus (camels, llamas), Moschus (musk deer), Cervus (deer and giraffes), Capra (goats and antelope), Ovis (sheep), Bos (cattle)

Among the species that Linnaeus put together as Pecora there are the dromedary camel (

Among the species that Linnaeus put together as Pecora there are (from left to right, top to bottom) the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius), the Siberian musk deer (Moschus moschiferus), the red deer (Cervus elaphus), the domestic goat (Capra hircus, now Capra aegagrus hircus), the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and the cattle (Bos taurus). Credits to Bjørn Christian Tørrisen (camel), F. Spangenberg (musk deer), Jörg Hempel (deer), Wolfgang Stadut (goat), Wikimedia user Jackhynes (sheep), and Andrew Butko (cattle).

1.7 Belluae (monster beasts), many obtuse incisives: Equus (horses), Hippopotamus (hippopotamuses, tapirs).

The order Belluae included the zebra (

The order Belluae included the zebra (Equus zebra) and the hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius). Credits to Trisha M. Shears (zebra) and Wikimedia user Irigi (hippopotamus).

1.8 Cete (sea monsters), cartilaginous teeth, aquatic animals: Monodon (narwhal), Balaena (whales), Physeter (sperm whales), and Delphinus (dolphins)

The order Cete included the following four species (left to right): narwhal (

The order Cete included the following four species (left to right): narwhal (Monodon monoceros), bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus), sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) and common dolphin (Delphinus delphis).

2. Aves (Birds)

Heart with two auricles and two ventricles; warm red blood.
Lungs breathing reciprocally.
Jaw incumbent, nude, extended, toothless.
Penis sub-entering, without scrotum, in oviparous, calcareous crust.
Senses: tongue, nostrils, eyes, ears without auricles.
Covering: incumbent and imbricate feathers.
Support: two feet, two wings.

Birds included 6 orders defined mainly by the shape of the bill: Accipitres, Picae, Anseres, Grallae, Gallinae, and Passeres

2.1 Accipitrae (hawks), having a curved upper jaw with a sharp end: Vultur (vultures and condors), Falco (falcons, eagles, hawks), Strix (owls), Lanius (shrikes, kingbirds, waxwings)

Accipitres included the Andean-condor (

Accipitres included (from left to right) the Andean-condor (Vultur gryphus), the American kestrel (Falco sparverius), the tawny awl (Strix aluco) and the brown shrike (Lanius cristatus). Credits to Linda Tanner (kestrel), flickr user nottsexminer (awl), and Charles Lam (shrike).

2.2 Picae (magpies), knife-shaped bill with a convex dorsum: Psittacus (parrots), Ramphastos (toucans), Buceros (hornbills), Cuculus (cuckoos), Jynx (wrynecks), Picus (woodpeckers), Corvus (crows and ravens), Coracias (rollers and orioles), Sitta (nuthatches), Merops (bee-eaters), Trochilus (hummingbirds), Crotophaga (anis), Gracula (mynas and grackles), Paradisaea (birds-of-paradise), Alcedo (kingfishers), Upupa (hoopoes), Certhia (treecreepers).

The follwing 16 species were all included in the order Picae:

The follwing 16 species were all included in the order Picae (left to right, top to bottom): African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus), white-throated toucan (Ramphastos tucanus), common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), Eurasian wryneck (Jynx torquilla), green woodpecker (Picus viridis), common raven (Corvus corax), European roller (Coracias garrulus), wood nuthatch (Sitta europaea), European bee-eater (Merops apiaster), red-billed streamertail (Trochilus polytmus), smooth-billed ani (Crotophaga ani), common hill myna (Gracula religiosa), greater bird of paradise (Paradisaea apoda), common kingfisher (Alcedo atthis), Eurasian hoopoe (Upupa epops), and Eurasian treecreeper (Certhia familiaris). Credits to Wikimedia user Fiorellino (parrot), Marie Hale (toucan), Wikimedia user locaguapa (cuckoo), Carles Pastor (wryneck), Hans Jörg Hellwig (woodpecker), Alan Vermon (raven), flickr user Koshy Koshy (roller), Paweł Kuźniar (nuthatch and treecreeper), Pellinger Attila (bee-eater), Charles J. Sharp (streamertail and ani), Wikimedia user Memset (myna), Andrea Lawardi (bird-of-paradise), wikimedia user Joefrei (kingfisher), Arturo Nikolai (hoopoe).

2.3 Anseres (geese), light bill, covered with skin and with a broad end: Anas (ducks, geese and swans), Mergus (merganser), Procellaria (petrels), Diomedea (albatrosses and penguins), Pelecanus (pelicans, cormorants, gannets, boobies and frigatebirds), Phaethon (tropicbirds), Alca (auks), Colymbus (loons and grebes), Larus (gulls), Sterna (terns), Rynchops (skimmers).

Eleven species listed by Linnaeus under Anseres:

Eleven species listed by Linnaeus under Anseres (left to right, top to bottom): mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), common merganser (Mergus merganser), white-chinned petrel (Procellaria aequinoctialis), wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans), great white pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus), red-billed tropicbird (Phaethon aethereus), razorbill (Alca torda), black-throated diver (Colymbus arcticus, now Gavia arctica), common gull (Larus canus), common tern (Sterna hirundo), and black skimmer (Rynchops niger). Credits to Andreas Trepte (mallard), Dick Daniels (merganser and skimmer), Ron Knight (petrel), JJ Harrison (albatross), Nino Barbieri (pelican), Charles J Sharp (tropicbird), Steve Garvie (diver), and Arne List (gull).

2.4 Grallae (stilts), subcylindrical bill: Phoenicopterus (flamingoes), Platalea (spoonbills), Mycteria (wood stork), Tantalus (the wood stork again!), Ardea (herons, cranes and storks), Recurvirostra (avocets), Scolopax (woodcocks, ibisis, godwitts, etc), Tringa (sandpipers, lapwings and phalaropes), Fulica (coots, moorhens and jacanas), Rallus (rails), Psophia (trumpeters), Haematopus (oystercatchers), Charadrius (plovers), Otis (bustards), Struthio (ostriches, rheas, cassowaries, and dodoes).

Fifteen species that Linnaeus put in the order Grallae: American flamingo (

Fifteen species that Linnaeus put in the order Grallae (left to right, top to bottom): American flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber), Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia), wood stork (Mycteria americana), the wood stork again (Tantalus localator), grey heron (Ardea cinerea), pied avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta), Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), wood sandpiper (Tringa glareola), Eurasian coot (Fulica atra), water rail (Rallus aquaticus), grey-winged trumpeter (Psophia crepitans), Eurasian oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus), ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula), great bustard (Otis tarda), and ostrich (Struthio camelus). Credits to Paul Asman and Jill Lenoble (flamingo), Andreas Trepte (spoonbill and avocet), Dick Daniels (woodstork), JJ Harrison (heron),  Ronald Slabke (woodcock), Wikimedia user Alpsdake (sandpiper), Axel Mauruszat (coot), Pierre Dalous (rail), Robin Chen (trumpeter), Wikimedia user TomCatX (oystercatcher), Wikimedia user Estormiz (plover), Francesco Varonesi (bustard), and Wikimedia user Nicor (ostrich).

2.5 Gallinae (chickens), convex bill with upper jaw bent over the lower jawPavo (peafowl), Meleagris (turkeys), Crax (curassows), Phasianus (pheasants and chickens), Tetrao (grouse, partridges and quails).

Linnaeus' Gallinae included (from left to right) the Indian peafowl (

Linnaeus’ Gallinae included (from left to right) the Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus), the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), the great curassow (Crax rubra), the common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), and the wood grouse (Tetrao urogallus). Credits to Wikimedia user Appaloosa (peafowl), Arthur Chapman (curassow), Lukasz Lukasik (pheasant), and Wikimedia user Siga (grouse).

2.6 Passeres (sparrows), conic and acuminate bill: Columba (doves and pigeons), Alauda (larks and pipit), Turdus (thrushes, warblers and mockingbirds), Loxia (crossbills, cardinals, bullfinches, etc), Emberiza (buntings), Fringilla (finches, canaries, sparrows, tanagers, etc), Sturnus (starlings), Motacilla (wagtails, redstarts, warblers, wrens, robins, etc), Parus (tits and manakins), Hirundo (swallows and swifts), Caprimulgus (nightjars).

Eleven species considered as belonging to the order Passeres: wood pigeon (

Eleven species considered as belonging to the order Passeres (left to right, top to bottom): wood pigeon (Columba palumbus), skylark (Alauda arvensis), blackbid (Turdus merula), red crossbil (Loxia curvirostra), yellowhammer (Emberiza citrinella), chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs), common starling (Sturnus vulgaris), white wagtail (Motacilla alba), great tit (Parus major), barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), European nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus). Credits to Nick Fraser (pigeon), Daniel Pettersson (skylark), Andreas Eichler (blackbird), Andreas Trepte (yellowhammer), Wikimedia user Thermos (chaffinch), Pierre Selim (starling), Malene Thyssen (wagtail), flickr user chapmankj75 (tit), Martin Mecnarowski (swallow), and Dûrzan Cîrano (nightjar).

Among the most peculiar things that we can highlight here are:

  • Bats were put together with the primates!
  • Rhinos were put together with rodents! This happened because Linnaeus based his classification of mammals on their teeth and the front teeth of rhinos resemble somewhat those of rodents.
  • Hippos and tapirs were put in the same genus! The South American tapir was called Hippopotamus terrestris!
  • Giraffes were classified as deers, and badgers and raccons as bears.
  • Several passerine birds, such as the kingbirds, were considered birds of prey (Accipitres).
  • Albatrosses and penguins were in the same genus!
  • Storks, herons and cranes were all in the same genus too.
  • On the other hand, the woodstork appears twice, as two species from different genera!

As one can see, Linnaeus was not so familiar with animals. He was, afterall, a botanist, but he did his best.

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Reference:

Linnaeus, Carl. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Nature…

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The lack of taxonomists and its consequences on ecology

by Piter Kehoma Boll

ResearchBlogging.orgI have already written on the problems of taxonomy in small and not-so-cute groups in a previous post, where I talked about the fact that several species, after being described, are completely ignored for decades or centuries. Here I will focus on the other extreme: the species yet to be described.

This is not a very big problem in very well studied groups, such as vertebrates and flowering plants, but less attractive groups, like worms, suffer a lot by the lack of taxonomists. I am going to use land planarians as an example, again, since it is the group that I work with.

Land planarians have been shown to be important predators of invertebrates in forests, as well as good indicators about the degree of disturbance in those ecosystems, but most species are still unknown. Only in Brazil, more than a hundred species have been described only for the Atlantic Rainforest and possibly at least an equal number is yet unknown. The situation is even worse in other regions of the country or neighbouring countries, where there are almost no species described at all.

Despite this small knowledge of the group, eventually some works regarding community structure are published, where a list of land planarians from the study site is presented. Let’s take a look at some of those lists:

1. Species of land planarians in four different habitats of the National Forest of São Francisco de Paula, southern Brazil. In Carbayo et al., 2001:

Carbayo et al. 2001

There are 28 distinguished species, but only one identified (Geoplana ladislavii), one not sure (Geoplana pavani) and two with the same name, but refering to different species (Notogynaphallia marginata). The others were yet unknown.

 

2. Species of land planarians in four different habitats of the National Forest of São Francisco de Paula, southern Brazil. In Carbayo et al., 2002:

Carbayo et al., 2002

A similar table, in the same area, by the same authors, about one year later. We can see 3 new species in the study: Geoplana franciscanaGeoplana josefi and Notogynaphallia guaiana, which were described in 2001. They were probably among the species listed in the first study, but which of them? Was Geoplana franciscana the species assigned as Geoplana sp.1, Geoplana sp.2, Geoplana sp.3…?

 

3. Abundance of species of land planarians in Araucaria Forest of the National Forest of São Francisco de Paula, southern Brazil. In Antunes et al., 2012.

Antunes et al., 2012

The same area again, 10 years later. We can see that there are more species already described, but many more still awaiting a name.

 

When we consider a single study about ecological communities by itself, the fact that the species found are not named is not such a big deal, since the main purpose is to measure patterns of abundance, richness and diversity and the interaction of biotic and abiotic factors on the communities. However, when comparing studies, the unidentified species become simply useless data. How can you be certain about what Geoplana sp.5 is in each study?

We urgently need more taxonomists working on those less prestigious groups, so that our ecological studies may have a wider role in conservation and understanding of nature.

–  – –

References:

Antunes, M., Leal-Zanchet, A. M. & Fonseca, C. 2012. Habitat structure, soil properties, and food availability do not predict terrestrial flatworms occurrence in Araucaria Forest sites. Pedobiologia, 55 (1), 25-31 DOI: 10.1016/j.pedobi.2011.09.010

Carbayo, F., Leal-Zanchet, A. M. & Vieira, E. M. 2001. Land planarians (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Terricola) as indicators of man-induced disturbance in a South Brazilian rainforest. Belgian Journal of Zoology, 131, 223-224

Carbayo, F., Leal-Zanchet, A. M. & Vieira, E. 2002. Terrestrial flatworm (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida: Terricola) diversity versus man-induced disturbance in an ombrophilous forest in southern Brazil. Biodiversity and Conservation, 11 (6), 1091-1104 DOI: 10.1023/A:1015865005604

Sluys, R. 1998. Land Planarians (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Terricola) in biodiversity and conservation studies. Pedobiologia, 42, 490-494

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What on Earth is Leimacopsis terricola? A flatworm mystery.

by Piter Kehoma Boll

ResearchBlogging.orgOh, ye olde times…

The 18th and 19th centuries were well marked by great worldwide expeditions by naturalists aboard ships travelling all around the world. Charles Darwin is certainly the most famous of them, but he was not the only one.

One of those naturalists was Karl Ludwig Schmarda, born in 1819. He studied in Vienna and was later a professor at the University of Graz, Austria. From 1853 to 1857, he travelled around the world investigating several locations and collecting primarily invertebrates. After his return, he published a work entitled Neue wirbellose Thiere beobachtet und gesammelt auf einer Reise um die Erde 1853 bis 1857 (New invertebrate animals observed and sampled on a travel around the Earth, 1853 to 1857).

Among the countless animals that he described, there was a worm which he called Prostheceraeus terricola. The description is as it follows:

Prostheceraeus terricola. Schmarda.
Taf. VI. Fig. 69.

Char. : Corpus oblongo-lanceolatum. Dorsum convexum viride. Fascia mediana et margo purpureus. Tentacula subuliformia.

Der Körper ist weniger flach als in andern Planarien, länglich, hinten lanzettförmig zugespitzt, vorne beinahe quer abgeschnitten. Die Fühler sind kurz und pfriemenförmig zugespitzt. Der Rücken ist stark convex, fast grasgrün, mit einer purpurrothen Längslinie nach seinem ganzen Verlaufe. Der Rand nicht wellenförmig, purpurroth gesäumt. Die Hauchfläche ist grünlichgrau. Die Länge 20mm, grösste Breite 5mm. Die Augen sind am innern Rande und der Basis der Fühler. Die Gruppe im Nacken, habe ich nicht beobachtet. Die Mundöffnung ist im vordern Drittel. Die Geschlechtsöffnungen habe ich nicht aufgefunden.
Der Grund meiner unvollständigen Kenntniss dieser Thierform ist der Umstand, dass ich nur ein Exemplar in dem obern Theile des Quindiu-Passes ober der Region der Bergpalmen gefunden hatte, welches ich in Gallego skizzirte, das aber schon zu Grunde gegangen war, als ich es in meiner Abendstation in Tocho einer wiederholten nähern Prüfung unterziehen wollte.

In English:

Oblong-lanceolate body. Green convex dorsum. Median and marginal purple stripes. Awl-like tentacles.

The body is less flat than in other planarians, elongated, behind pointed and lanceolate, front almost transversally cut. The feelers are short and awl-like pointed. The back is strongly convex, almost grass green with a purple line running fully along it. Margin not wave-like and purple-colored. The ventral surface is greenish gray. Length 20mm, largest width 5mm. The eyes are at the inner border and the base of the feelers. The group at the neck I didn’t observed. The mouth opening is in the front third. The sexual opening I did not found.
The reason of my incomplete knowledge of this animal form is due to the circumstance of finding only one specimen in the top part of the Quindiu passage above the region of the mountain palms, which I sketched it in Gallego, since it was already deteriorating, to undergo a revision back at the station in Tocho.

Here you can see the drawing of the animal:

Drawing of Prostheceraeus terricola by Schmarda, 1859

Drawing of Prostheceraeus terricola by Schmarda, 1859

Schmarda put other worms in the same genus, all of them marine. The genus is valid until today for marine species and they are classified as belonging to the Polycladida, those beautiful sea flatworms.

In fact, this animal actually looks kind of similar to a polyclad, but Schmarda found it on the top of the mountains! Quite unusual, and unfortunately he found only one single specimen.

Prostheceraeus giesbrechtii, another species described by Schmarda (1859). Photo by Parent Géry taken from commons.wikimedia.org

Prostheceraeus giesbrechtii, another species described by Schmarda (1859). Photo by Parent Géry taken from commons.wikimedia.org

Later, in 1862, K. M. Diesing made a revision of turbellarians and defined that, as the creature lived on land, it was certainly something other than a polyclad and changed it to a new genus which he called Leimacopsis (slug-like):

XVIII. LEIMACOPSIS DIESING.
Prostheceraei spec. Schmarda.

Corpus elongato-lanceolatum, supra convexum. Caput corpore continuum antice truncatum, tentaculis duobus genuinis frontalibus. Ocelli numerosi tentaculorum. Os ventrale antrorsum situm, oesophago… Apertura genitalis. . . Terrestres, Americae tropicae.

1. Leimacopsis terricola DIESING.
Corpus elongato-lanceolatum, supra convexum, viride, vitta mediana corpori aequilonga et marginibus haud undulatis purpureis, subtus viridi-cinereum. Tentacula subuliformia, brevia. Ocelli ad marginem internum et ad basim tentaculorum. Os in anteriore corporis tertia parte. Longit. 10′”, latit. 2 1/3 “.
Prostheceraeus terricola Schmarda: Neue wirbell. Th. I. 1. 30. Tab. VI. 69.
Habitaculum. In parte superiore transitus Andium Quindiu, supra regionem Palmarum montanarum (Bergpalmen), specimen unicum (Schmarda).

It’s basically a repetition of Schmarda’s description and based only on it. It looks that no other specimens were found until this time.

Years later, in 1877, H. N. Moseley published a catalogue of all land planarians known at the time. He included Leimacopsis terricola with the following description:

Family. — Leimacopsidæ, Diesing.

Genus Leimacopsis. — Diesing, Revision der Turbellarien, Abtheilung Dendrocoelen, Sitzbt. Akad. Wiss., Wien, 1861, p. 488.
Leimacopsis terricola.—Diesing, 1. c.
Prostheraceus terricola. — Schmarda, ‘Neue Wirbellose Thiere,’ Th. 1, 1—30, Tab. VI, fig. 69.
With a pair of true frontal tentacles beset with numerous eyes. Occurs high up in the Andes at the pass of Quindiu, above the region of mountain palms.

As you can see, it’s again simply a repetition of Schmarda’s description based on that single specimen from 20 years earlier, but from Diesing on, the animal started to be considered a land planarian rather than a polyclad.

Now in 1899, Ludwig von Graff published his great monography about turbellarians and I’m certain that I saw something about Leimacopsis there. Unfortunately I never found a digital copy of it and I don’t have a physical copy easily accessible either, but according to Ogren (1992), it has only a repetition of Schmarda’s account. Graff, however, changed the spelling to Limacopsis, but this is not valid according to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

In 1914, finally a new article, by O. Fuhrmann, was published with information about land planarians from Colombia. He begins commenting that there were only three species known for the country by that time, one of them being Limacopsis [sic] terricola. However, the species was not found again this time…

The years passed and nothing changed. In 1991, Ogren and Kawakatsu, in part of their index to the species of land planarians, comment that several researchers, like E. M. Froehlich and L. H. Hyman, considered Leimacopsis terricola as possibly being a slug.

In 1992, Robert Ogren wrote an excellent revision of this species, which presents all information I have given here and much more. He concluded that the organism is a species inquerenda (needing further investigation) and nomen dubium (doubtful name). It is not possible to assign the animal as either a flatworm or a mollusk, or anything else due to the lack of information. Ogren considered it as “clearly part of the lore of Cryptozoology”.

As we can see, cryptids don’t need to be big animals like dinosaurs or big feet. Even a small slug-like worm from the Andes may fit.

Leimacopsis terricola is certainly an interesting organism. What was it really? Was it real? Maybe an extensive research in the area would reveal something… or not. Let’s wait and hope… Or perhaps… what about going to an adventure in Colombia’s Andean region in search of the mysterious creature?

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References:

Diesing, K. M. 1862. Revision der Turbellarien. Abtheilung: Dendrocoelen. Keiserlich-Königlichen Hof- und Staatsdruckerei DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.2108

Fuhrmann, O. 1914. Planaires terrestres de Colombie. In: Fuhrmann & Mayor (eds.) Voyage d’Exploration Scientifique en Colombie. Mémoires de la Société des sciences naturelles de Neuchâtel, 5 (2), 748-792

Moseley, H. 1874. On the Anatomy and Histology of the Land-Planarians of Ceylon, with Some Account of Their Habits, and a Description of Two New Species, and with Notes on the Anatomy of Some European Aquatic Species. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 164, 105-171 DOI: 10.1098/rstl.1874.0005

Ogren, R. E. 1992. The systematic position of the cryptic land organism, Leimacopsis terricola (Schmarda, 1859)(olim Prostheceraeus)(Platyhelminthes). Journal of The Pennsylvania Academy of Science, 66 (3), 128-134

Ogren, R. E. & Kawakatsu, M. 1991. Index to the species of the family Geoplanidae (Turbellaria, Tricladida, Terricola) Part II: Caenoplaninae and Pelmatoplaninae. Bulletin of Fuji Women’s College, 29, 35-58

Schmarda, L. K. 1859. Thiere beobachtet und gesammelt auf einer Reise um die Erde 1853 bis 1857. Lepizig: W. Engelmann. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.14426

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Filed under Cryptids, Systematics, Zoology