by Piter Kehoma Boll
European in origin, but currently cosmopolitan, today’s Friday Fellow is a very useful earthworm for humans. Scientifically known as Eisenia fetida, this species has many different popular names, including tiger worm, red californian earthworm, red wiggler worm, etc.
The tiger worm rarely lives underground, prefering to live among decaying vegetable matter, such as in the leaf litter, therefore being considered an epigean species. Due to its adaptability to live among and feed on decaying organic material, it is widely used by humans for vermicomposting, i.e., producing humus to be used as a nutrient rich soil in cultivation of vegetables. As a result, it has been introduced worlwide.
When molested, the tiger worm secrets a yellow and pungent liquid from its celomic cavity that has been shown to be toxic to some vertebrates, thus probably being a defense mechanism against predators.
Due to its agriculatural importance, the tiger worms has been used in many studies regarding its response to different soil contaminants, including pesticides, and its presence on the amount of inorganic nutrients, such as carbon and nitrogen, in the soil.
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Albanell, E.; Plaixats, J.; Cabrero, T. (1988) Chemical changes during vermicomposting (Eisenia fetida) of sheep manure mixed with cotton industrial wastes. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 6(3): 266–269.
Spurgeon, D. J.; Hopkin, S. P. (1999) Comparisons of metal accumulation and excretion kinetics in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to contaminated field and laboratory soils. Applied Soil Ecology, 11(2–3): 227–243.
Zhang, B.-G.; Li, G.-T.; Shen, T.-S.; Wang, J.-K.; Sun, Z. (2000) Changes in microbial biomass C, N, and P and enzyme activities in soil incubated with the earthworms Metaphire guillelmi or Eisenia fetida. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32(14): 2055–2062.
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