Tag Archives: zooids

Friday Fellow: Duckweed Chain Flatworm

by Piter Kehoma Boll

Today we have one more flatworm in our team. It is part of the most bizarre group of flatworms, the so-called Catenulida. Our fellow is called Catenula lemnae, which I adapted as the “duckweed chain flatworm”.

The duckweed chain flatworm is a very small animal, measuring about 0.1 mm in width and about two or three times this size in length. It is found worldwide in freshwater lakes and ponds and is likely a complex of species, but more detailed studies are needed to make it clear. As other catenulids, it lives close to the substract, being considered a benthic animal, and feeds on other smaller organisms, such as small invertebrates and algae. It is usually a dominant species in the community of benthic microanimals, such as microturbellarians, in places where it is found.

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A chain of several connected individuals (zooids) of Catenula lemnae. Photo by Christopher Laumer.*

The word catenula, meaning “little chain” in Latin, was given to these animals because of their peculiar way of vegetative reproduction. The organism frequently divides transversally close to the posterior end, giving rise to new organisms that are genetically identical to the original one. However, the new animals often remain connected to each other for a long time before splitting, and as this asexual reproduction continues, it eventually turn them into a chain of connected individuals (called zooids). This chain swims elegantly using its cilia as if it were a single individual.

Most recent studies mentioning the duckeed chain flatworm are simply surveys of the species composition of a certain area or broad phylogenetic studies on the catenulids or flatworms in general. Little is known about the ecology, behavior and population structuring of this species, unfortunately.

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References:

Braccini, J. A. L.; Leal-Zanchet, A. M. (2013)  Turbellarian assemblages in freshwater lagoons in southern Brazil. Invertebrate Biology132(4): 305–314. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ivb.12032

Marcus, E. (1945) Sôbre Catenulida brasileiros. Boletim da Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras da Universidade de São Paulo, série Zoologia, 10: 3–113.

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Friday Fellow: Portuguese Man o’ War

by Piter Kehoma Boll

And so we finally reached the 100th Friday Fellow! In order to commemorate, we will have two Friday Fellows today, just as we had during the 50th one. And to start I chose a cnidarian that always caught me attention.

Living in the Atlantic Ocean and known popularly as Portuguese man o’ war, its binomial name is Physalia physalis, both words derived from the Greek word for bubble, physalis. And the Portuguese man o’ war is, in fact, like a floating bubble with some stuff attached, or at least it looks like that.

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A Portuguese man o’ war lying on the beach. Photo by Anna Hesser.*

Most people may think that the Portuguese man o’ war is a jellyfish due to its looks, but it is actually part of another group of cnidarians, the siphonophores. Their body is not a single individual, but rather a colony of several smaller animals, called zooids, which are speciallized to have different functions within the colony and cannot live separately. They are all derived from the same embryo, thus being clones from each other.

The upper portion of the Portuguese man o’ war has a gas-filled sack, which is called the pneumatophore and is the original organism derived directly from the embryo. Below the pneumatophore there are several different kinds of organisms, such as nectophores for swimming, dactylozooids for defense and capture of prey, gonozooid for reproduction and gastrozooids for feeding. The long tentacles, which reach more than 10 m in length, are composed by dactylozooids and fish for prey throughout the water.

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Floating on the sea. Photo by Regine Stiller.*

As other cnidarians, the Portuguese man o’ war has nettle-like cells which sting and inject venom. In humans, the venom usually cause pain and let whip-like marks on the skin where the tentacles touched. Sometimes more severe complications will results and in rare cases it may result in death.

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References:

Stein, M. R.; Marraccini, J. V.; Rothschild, N. E.; Burnett, J. W. (1989) Fatal portuguese man-o’-war (Physalia physalis) envenomation. Annals of Emergency Medicine 18(3): 312–315.

Wikipedia. Portuguese man o’ war. Available at <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portuguese_man_o%27_war&gt;. Access on June 16, 2017.

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