Tag Archives: medicinal plants

Friday Fellow: Mexican Giant Horsetail

by Piter Kehoma Boll

If you are walking through the forest of Central America, you may end up finding something that at first you could think is a group of bamboos, plants growing as a cylindrical segmented stem that can reach up to 7 m in height, as seen in the picture below:


A group of bamboos? Not exactly. Photo by Alex LomasAlex Lomas.*

Those are not actually bamboos, though, but specimens of the largest species of horsetail that exists today, the Mexican giant horsetail, Equisetum myriochaetum. It can be found growing naturally from Peru to Mexico in areas of fertile soil, especially along water bodies such as streams and swamps.

As other horsetails, the Mexican giant horsetail has an erect and hollow stem with very narrow leaves growing in a whirl around the “joints” of the stem. The leaves are very simple, similar to those of more primitive plants such as the spikemosses and ground pines, but are thought to be a simplification of more complex leaves, as they are more closely related to the complex-leaved ferns.

More than only the largest horsetail in the world, the Mexican giant horsetail is an important medicinal plant in Mexican folk medicine, being used to treat kidney diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus. And as in many other occasions, laboratory studies confirmed that water extracts from the aerial parts of E. myriochaetum do indeed reduce the blood glucose levels of type 2 diabetic patients without reducing their insulin levels. One more point to traditional medicine.

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EOL – Encyclopedia of Life. Equisetum myriochaetum. Available at <http://eol.org/pages/6069616/overview&gt;. Access on March 4, 2017.

Revilla, M., Andrade-Cetto, A., Islas, S., & Wiedenfeld, H. (2002). Hypoglycemic effect of Equisetum myriochaetum aerial parts on type 2 diabetic patients Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 81 (1), 117-120 DOI: 10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00053-3

Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. Equisetum myriochaetum. Available at <http://www.rbge.org.uk/the-gardens/plant-of-the-month/plant-profiles/equisetum-myriochaetum&gt;. Access on March 4, 2017.

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Friday Fellow: Indian shot

ResearchBlogging.orgby Piter Kehoma Boll

Today’s Friday Fellow may not seem to be such an astonishing plant, but it has its peculiarities, some of them quite interesting.

Commonly known as Indian shot, African arrowroot, purple arrowroot, and many other names, it was called Canna indica by Linnaeus in his work Species Plantarum. In fact, Canna indica is the first plant named in the book, so it could be seen as the first life form to receive a valid binomial name.


A small-flowered, possibly wild variety of Indian shot. Photo by flickr user peganum.*

Despite being called Indian shot or African arrowroot, this species is actually native from the Americas, especially South America, although it may be found as far north as the southern United States. It is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant and several varieties exist. It is also naturalized in many parts of Europe, Africa, Southeast Asia, and many Pacific islands.

The subterranean rhizomes of the Indian shot are edible and were a food crop cultivated by the original inhabitants of the Americas, although is much less used nowadays. The rhizomes may be eaten raw or baked or cooked. The seeds, which are small, globular and black, are very hard and dense and can even be used as bullets, hence the name Indian shot.


Seeds and flowers of Canna indica. Photo by Wikimedia user B.navez.*

The Indian shot is sometimes used to remove nutrients from wastewaters, being cultivated in constructed wetlands where the wastewaters are kept for purification. There are also  some studies pointing to its use as an inhibitor of the activity of the protein reverse transcriptase of  HIV.

Isn’t it a nice fellow, after all?

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Cui, L., Ouyang, Y., Lou, Q., Yang, F., Chen, Y., Zhu, W., & Luo, S. (2010). Removal of nutrients from wastewater with Canna indica L. under different vertical-flow constructed wetland conditions Ecological Engineering, 36 (8), 1083-1088 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2010.04.026

Wikipedia. Canna indica. Availabe at <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canna_indica&gt;. Access on December 2, 2016.

Woradulayapinij, W., Soonthornchareonnon, N., & Wiwat, C. (2005). In vitro HIV type 1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities of Thai medicinal plants and Canna indica L. rhizomes Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 101 (1-3), 84-89 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2005.03.030

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic License.

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